Anticardiolipin Antibody

Studies revealed that is possible for systemic lupus erythematosus to affect the nervous system. Patients with lupus may experience confusion, difficulty with concentrating, headaches, fatigue, strokes or other signs that show nervous system involvement.

Studies suggested that the nerve tissue may be damaged when antibodies attack nerve cells or blood vessels. It is known that the nervous system requires an uninterrupted flow of blood, that is needed to supply with oxygen and nutrients its tissues. When this flow of blood is slowed or interrupted, the nervous cells are unable to function normally, and there appear symptoms. The symptoms vary, depending where the tissue injury is situated.It is good to know that the nervous system contains three parts. The central nervous system comprises the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system nerve fibers that have the role to provide the skin and muscles the power needed for sensation and movement, and the third part is the autonomic nervous system that has the role to regulate spinal, peripheral nerves and to innervate the internal organs.

An inflammation of the blood vessels of the brain that appears to 10% of all lupus patients is called the central nervous system vasculitis.This disease usually requires hospitalization and high doses of corticosteroids. Some of the symptoms that appear are high fevers, seizures, psychosis and meningitis-like stiffness of the neck. If it is not aggressively managed, the central nervous system vasculitis rapidly progresses to stupor and coma.

People with mild to moderated systemic lupus erythematosus can experience the cognitive dysfunction. That is a group of symptoms that appear at about 50% of these patients, and we can mention here fatigue, memory impairment, feelings of confusion, and difficulty to express the thoughts. By taking a neuropsychological test or a test called the positron emission tomography, these symptoms can be clearly documented.It is known that cognitive dysfunction may come and go on its own, but no optimal therapy is available. Also, it is not known which is the reason for the symptoms that appear. Dealing with a cognitive dysfunction is frustrating, and often counseling a person in developing coping skills may be helpful.

About 20% of the patients having systemic lupus erythematosus experience the lupus headache. This manifests by severe headaches, is similar to migraine and can be often seen in persons who have also Raynaud's phenomenon. As a treatment, it is useful the same one used in tension headaches or migraine, and sometimes corticosteroids.
It is known that about a third of the patients having lupus can have a false positive syphilis test, a positive anticardiolipin antibody, or a prolonged clotting time test.This is known under the name of the lupus anticoagulant or the antiphospholipid antibody. About 1/9 of the patients having lupus will develop blood clots in various parts of the body, which is called the antiphospholipid syndrome.If blood clots appear in the nervous system, they can cause a stroke, and symptoms of a stroke include the painless onset of neurologic deficits without any signs of active lupus.If a stroke appears, there must be taken blood-thinning medications. We can mention here low-dose aspirin, coumadin or heparin.

Among patients having systemic lupus erythematosus there is a percentage of 20% that have fibromyalgia syndrome as well. These patients experience increased pain in the soft tissues, tender points, and, in addition cognitive dysfunction, decreased ability to concentrate, lack of stamina and difficulty sleeping. As a treatment, we can mention anti-depressants, counseling, and physical therapy if needed.

It was discovered that medications used to treat systemic lupus erythematosus can develop symptoms like those of the central nervous system lupus.Psychosis can appear due to anti-malarials in very high doses; headache, dizziness, and in rare situations meningitis-like symptoms can be provoked by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Also if a patient uses corticosteroids, there can appear moods swings, psychosis, depression, agitation, confusion, if there are taken high doses can appear seizures, and anti-hypertensive medications may be associated with depression or loss of libido.

A study discovered that people that have both lupus and Sjogren's syndrome may be predisposed to develop vasculitis or cognitive dysfunction. Sometimes, circulating proteins in the blood can lead to cryoglobulinemia or hyperviscosity syndrome.Plasmapheresis or filtering the blood can ease these complications.Sometimes, pronounced decreases in platelet counts may be associated with bleeding.People with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or who lack Protein S or Protein C may clot, and those with lupus, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and kidney failure may bleed.

In peripheral nervous system lupus, involvement of the cranial nerves can cause visual disturbances, drooping of the eyelid(s), ringing in the ear(s), facial pain and dizziness.Symptoms of numbness or tingling in the arms or legs can appear if there is an inflammation of the blood vessels supplying the peripheral nerves. There can also appear symptoms due to other conditions than lupus and electromyogram and nerve conduction tests are usually helpful to determine if symptoms are due to some other cause. Corticosteroids are used to treat inflammation of the peripheral nerves.

It is important for your doctor to know if you experience nervous system symptoms. It is possible that these symptoms to appear due to lupus, due to a medication or a particular aspect of your life. The doctor will ask you about the symptoms you experience, he will perform a physical examination and a laboratory evaluation including a blood chemistry panel, complete blood count and urinalysis. Also, diagnostic tests like sedimentation rate, ANA, anti-DNA, anti-ribosomal P antibodies and complement may be useful in order to determine nervous system involvement.There are neurodiagnostic tests, that include CT and MRI brain scans, brain waves or electroencephalogram and spinal taps.In a few hospitals, there can also be performed PET scans.The spinal fluid may be examined for cells, protein components and antineuronal antibodies. In patients with cognitive dysfunction, neuropsychologic tests may be helpful.

The treatment for nervous system lupus depends upon its source, and can include immunosuppressants, blood thinners, antibiotics, steroids, anti-depressants, counseling or surgery. If there are evident diagnostic difficulties, a rheumatologist and/or neurologist should be involved in your care. It was seen that for many people with lupus, nervous system involvement is completely reversible.

For more resources about symptoms of lupus please review this http://www.lupus-guide.com/systemic-lupus.htm or even http://www.lupus-guide.com/lupus-rash.htm

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    How do you have a successful birth with Anticardiolipin Antibody Syndrome?
    I was diagnosed several years ago with Anticardiolipin Antibody Syndrome, after several miscarriages. Being married, and my husband wanting to try again. I am hoping to find someone with the same health issues that has had successful pregnancy's that may know certin things to do to help with a successful birth.

    • ANSWER:
      You should probably see a high risk OB specialist. He /she can advise you. You may need to check with a nearby university hospital.

  2. QUESTION:
    Elevated Anticardiolipin Antibodies?
    Anyone out there have elevated Anticardiolipin Antibodies? I had blood work done recently, which revealed that I have an moderately high level of IgM ACA. I will be tested again at the end of the month to confirm that it's not transiently high, but I'm not too happy about this.
    If you have had this or have this, how's your health? How serious did your doctor make this out to be?

    • ANSWER:
      An antibody directed against cardiolipin. They are the most widely accepted and tested for immune factor. Approximately 80% of patients who have an antiphospholipid antibody problem will test positive for anticardiolipin antibodies, but the remaining 20% will test positive for one of the other six antiphospholipid antibodies. Some of these conditions can be treated with steroids, immunoglobulins, or other means.

      It is used to help investigate inappropriate blood clot formation, to help determine the cause of recurrent miscarriage, or as part of an evaluation for antiphospholipid syndrome.

      It sounds like you are in good hands.

  3. QUESTION:
    Do I need to fast before blood work?
    PT and PTT Activated
    TSH, 3rd Generation
    ANA
    Anticardiolipin Antibodies

    If so, how long? I have to go get it done tomorrow, and nobody told me whether or not to fast!

    • ANSWER:
      Follow the instructions provided by your doctor. If you were not specifically told to fast, it is not necessary. However if you are still concerned and would like to play it safe, typical instructions are to not eat or drink anything after midnight on the day of your visit to the doctor.

  4. QUESTION:
    Do you know about antiphospholid blood disorders (may cause miscarriages)?
    I wanted to let some people know that about a disorder that you may have if you have had multiple miscarriages. It is called antiphospholipid syndrome; aka - anticardiolipin antibody syndrome; itc. There are several names. However, this is abnormal blood clotting disorder that may be occuring if you have had 3 or more miscarriages. Some doctors do not know about this and some patients do not check for the antibodies until after having several miscarriages. I had tested positive to it a few times and negative some others. I had 3 miscarriages, none can be proven that the blood disorder was the culprit but this disorder can also be a problem for men as well, any blood cloting problem can be a problem.

    • ANSWER:
      yes because I have such a disorder. I have Factor V Leiden. I just wanted you to know that with proper treatment you can have a child. I have two beautiful girls. But it took lots of Lovenox injections to safety get them here. But it was well worth it. Good luck to you.

  5. QUESTION:
    I'm freaking out - Someone please help explain this....?
    So, I had my 8 week tests done and one came back abnormal. My doc said that the syphilis test came back negative but the rpr portion crossed with an antibody so they are testing me further. They took blood from me yesterday saying it was for anticardiolipin antibody and that if the test comes back negative, we do nothing. if it comes back positive, he'll put me on baby aspirin and my chances of miscarriage drop dramatically. I'm freaking out because I'm just not understanding what is going on. I've googled and that confuses me more! I'm 10 weeks now, we saw the baby yesterday and it looked wonderful, waved at me, 182bpm (he said he liked to see it that high in the first trimester) and all looked great! Has anyone heard of this testing or been through my experience?? Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      ive never heard of that and im sorry i cant be much help other than to say take it easy! dont stress as that can cause your chances of a miscarriage to go up. i hope all is well with baby :)

  6. QUESTION:
    Anyone out there have Antiphospholipid Syndrome?
    I've been recently diagnosed with it - I have moderately high levels of IgM anticardiolipin antibody. I had a stroke at age 24, I am now 33 and have had no problems since. They told me at the time of my stroke that there was nothing wrong with me, but when I ordered my health records from back then, I saw that my IgM anticardiolipin was at 30...I saw a hematologist recently, who has checked it twice, and the first test came back at 23, the second at 20. I am now on a baby aspirin daily. Before now, I was on nothing at all.

    I am worried and want to hear from anyone with this problem. How is it going for you? I'm worried that I won't have a normal life span or will have a stroke or heart attack at any moment.
    I've done a lot of research on this, and most articles I read suggest that the IgM antibody's role in clotting is 'unknown' and that it is the IgG that is dangerous, but my hematologist disagrees...
    That's not what I said. It IS life threatening, I've already had a stroke and open heart surgery. Also, my hematologist did NOT say that IgM is not dangerous, he said it WAS.
    Also, I have no baby. I'd like to, but am being told that it is risky for me to be pregnant.
    I said I'm on BABY ASPIRIN, not that I have a baby. LOL.

    • ANSWER:
      Back in undergrade, I took genetic. I am not a pro. I would say to keep a healthy diet and stop worrying about things that are beyond your control. The Hematologist told you that the IgM role in clotting is unknown and the IgG dangerous. You still lucky in the sense that it is not life threating. By worring about what you have can really give you another heart attack. You should be enjoying your baby and give them the love that you should be giving them. No one knows when their time is up. Sick or not we all have to go.
      Take care of yourself, and enjoy your life. Find out as much as you can how you can live a healthier and better life from your doctors and your research. If you have 2 days or 20 to 100 years to live, make it the best. Surround yourself with love and most of all do the best that you can to show your kids that you love them. Life is short for all of us since none of us knows when our time is up.
      I will keep you in my prayers and may the peace of God surround you and your family

  7. QUESTION:
    Positive lab test. need help with this?
    tested positive for anticardiolipin IgM antibody. It is of significance (my lab paperwork states this). However, the idiot OBGYN doctor I had who ordered this test never called me with any results and the only reason I have this information is because I requested my medical records.

    I brought this to my regular doctor who is having it repeated, which is what the lab statement says.

    Has anyone had this positive and what exactly are its implications?
    I also tested on the high side for the following-
    beta-2 glycoprotein IgA
    APTS IgM
    Protein C

    and LOW for homocysteine

    • ANSWER:
      Anticardiolipin is elevated in autoimmune diseases and can cause increased clotting. These sites have additional info:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-cardiolipin_antibodies
      http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/cardiolipin/test.html

  8. QUESTION:
    I tested positive........ what does this mean?
    I tested positive for anticardiolipin IgM antibody. It is of significance (my lab paperwork states this). However, the idiot OBGYN doctor I had who ordered this test never called me with any results and the only reason I have this information is because I requested my medical records.

    I brought this to my regular doctor who is having it repeated, which is what the lab statement says.

    Has anyone had this positive and what exactly are its implications?
    ummm firefly... read this again, as you obviously didnt read the entire thing.

    Of note, my regular doctor is not familiar with this type of test, since it's very specific and not a common test.
    also tested on the high side for the following-
    beta-2 glycoprotein IgA
    APTS IgM
    Protein C

    and LOW for homocysteine
    I have had one (possibly 2) early miscarriages

    • ANSWER:
      Anti-cardiolipin antibodies include IgG, IgM and IgA. Were you tested only for the IgM? This type of testing is also called APA or Antiphospholipid antibodies. The normal range is less than or equal to I0 MPL units/mL. A low positive is 11-20 MPL units/mL, a moderate positive is 21-60 MPL units/mL and a high positive is more than 60 MPL units/mL. Did your labwork address this? This is complicated stuff. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies are a heterogeneous family of autoantibodies directed against protein–phospholipid complexes.

      Antiphospholipid testing is used to help determine the cause of an unexplained thrombotic episode, recurrent fetal loss, thrombocytopenia, and/or a prolonged PTT. You're seeing an OB/Gyn so does fetal loss apply to you?

      Specific antibodies can elevate with infection, for instance, but whether or not yours is a chronic significant elevation can't be determine without retesting in 8 to 10 weeks. I don't know why your antibodies were tested in the first place. Do you? Your doctor can best explain to you what this means in terms of your health. I caution you against asking for this kind of interpretation online. I suggest you continue follow up with your primary care doctor but speak to the Ob/Gyn and get your questions answered. You deserve that much.

      Go ahead & email me about all your labs. I can explain them and I cannot interpret their significance. I'd have to be doctor who is familiar with your case to do that.

  9. QUESTION:
    Do you think I really have SLE? and is Plaquenil right for me? :o ) Pleasssse help me!!?
    Hi there,

    I have a history (about 4 years or so) of dizzy spells, blurred and double vision, pins and needles in my face, migraines and tiredness. I went to the doctors for blood tests and it came back that I had past infections of ross river, barmah forest virus and epstein-barr. I also had an ESR of 103 and a few abnormalities in my blood but nothing else major.

    I was referred to see a general physician bit didnt quite get there before I had a major seizure (followed by 2 more in hospital). I had a few tests done and my EEG and CT came back normal, but my MRI showed up 4 lesions in my brain. I tested positive to ANA, and weakly positive to anti-DNA. I had a high titer of anticardiolipin antibodies in my blood as well. The neurologist diagnosed me with definate SLE, but my immunologist said it was only likely that I had SLE, and that the anticardiolipin was causing my problems?! The immunologist did more blood tests and it came back that was ANA was now only slightly raised and my Anti-DNA was now negative.

    Is this normal or does this indicate that it isn't SLE? I have been trying to look up whether these values only increase during flare ups, but havent been able to find anything.

    Also, I have been started on Plaquinil, but have since been extremely dizzy everyday (feeling almost like I am going to collapse) and I wanted to know if anyone knows if plaquinil would be causing that or if its just a coincidence, and if you even think this is the right medication for me.

    I have felt very lost these past few weeks, and it seems nobody (the neurologist or immunologist) can give me a straight answer, or that they even understand each others perspective. :S I have already had 7 weeks off from work, and am still unsure if I can go back yet or not which means I am also broke (to add to my stress's!!) I would really appreciate it if somebody can give me some advice on what to do :o )

    • ANSWER:

  10. QUESTION:
    Will I have a hard time adopting?
    My husband and I are considering adoption, but I am concerned that my health history will be an issue. I don't have anything majorly wrong with me, but I did suffer a stroke for unknown reasons in my early 20s. I do not have any deficiencies from the stroke at all. Recently they found elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies in me, which *may* have accounted for my stroke, but a lot of healthy people have high levels of these antibodies as well, and my elevated level could be transient (we will check my blood again at the end of the month to see).
    It has been over 8 years since my stroke, but when people hear 'stroke' they think you have one foot in the grave already. I know the insurance companies see it that way.
    Do you think this will be a major issue that will keep us from being able to adopt? I can have a baby of my own, but it would be considered high risk.
    A lot of these answers are jumping to conclusions. I am not dying, I am extremely healthy and fit, my bloodwork comes back perfect. My main concern is people will see my history (past) and think I'm sick, because when people hear 'stroke' they think you have one foot in the grave.
    As for having a child of my own, I'd be high risk. What good is having a child if something happens to it's momma? Just because someone is *fertile* doesn't mean they should have a baby.
    I have a great home full of love, safety and opportunity for a child out there. What's wrong with so many of you that you'd rather they stay in the hands of the government than to have a family? Messed up, seriously.

    • ANSWER:
      My wife has a long medical history. She had major medical problems 20-25 years ago, and still takes medication daily and visits a doctor more in a month than I do in a year. She is basically healthy, in that she is able to work and function on a day-to-day basis; she just has chronic issues that have to be managed.

      However, we were able to adopt from the foster care system without any significant problem. She was able to show that she is able to function and manage her medical problems.

      You can expect to be asked about your medical history, but I really doubt they will disqualify you.

  11. QUESTION:
    High Risk pregnancy ... Cardiolipin IgM value 45.0?
    Cardiolipin-IgM value 45.0 Is it critical?
    Cardiolipin abs-IgM - 45.0. Is it Critical?
    Recently, i'd undergone the ANTICARDIOLIPIN antibodies test and the result is:CARDIOLIPIN Abs-IgM 45.0.

    Do We need to worry about the baby? Is this Critical?

    The doctor has suggested Inj.Clexane regularly.

    Pl. help.

    * 16 hours ago
    * - 3 days left to answer.

    Additional Details

    1 second ago
    Any doctor here, pl. suggest whether Inj.Clexane need to taken regularly or we can take it weekly or so....

    • ANSWER:

  12. QUESTION:
    Recurrent miscarriage help!?
    Okay, so I am looking for some answers ,any experience or advice would be great!

    I have had 3 miscarriages.
    The first stopped growing at about 6.5 weeks (I had a D&C at 11 weeks)
    Second was natural at 5.5 weeks
    Third was at 6wks, 4 days. D&C at 8 weeks.

    My Dr. has ordered some test for my next cyle but they don't really seem to fit my medical history. I'm asking because My husband and I want to TTC instead of waiting another month to do tests.

    The test he orderd are:
    Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies
    TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone )
    Fasting Glocuse
    Progesterone

    I have no problem getting pregnant (1-2 months every time) and I have regular cycles (29 days).
    What I mean is, are these test even worth waiting for? They doen't seem likely or they don't have a history and successful pregnancies with treatment. Also, can he do any of these test if I'm pregnant, like the insulin or progestrone?

    • ANSWER:
      those seem like normal test to be running he isn't worried about you getting pregnant it's about you being able to carry the baby full term

  13. QUESTION:
    I have lost two pregnancies. What shall I do?
    Hello!
    I am 25 years old. In February 2009 i had a miscarriage, i was about 8-9 weeks pregnant. The size of the embryo was 19mm.
    After that, a month later(until 13.04.09) I Took the following test with results:
    1) Immune status:
    Anticardiolipin IgG -11,5 (lab norm 10)
    Anticardiolipin IgM -37.2 (lab norm 10)
    Antiphospholipid IgG -3.7 (lab norm 10)
    Antiphospholipid IgM -8.8 (lab norm 10)

    2) Analysis of hemostasis results were good
    3) anti-CMV IgG (Cytomegalovirus) -7.5 (lab norms 0-0,5)
    anti-CMV IgM -negative (norm - negative)
    anti-T gondii IgG (Toxoplasma) -103.1 (norms 0-50)
    anti-T godnii IgM (Toxoplasma) negative (norm - negative)
    anti-HSV, type 1,2 IgG (herpes) -121.6 (norms 0-5.0)
    anti-HSV, type 1,2 IgM (herpes) - negative (norm - negative)
    5) Mycoplasmosis, ureoplasmosis - negative
    6) Testosterone , prolactin, LH, FSH, T-4, TSH - normal
    7) Antibody to rubella - negative

    My doctor on thought it might be antiphospholipid syndrome.
    7 months later, in September, we have decided to try to conceive again.
    Ultrasound (12 October) - uterine pregnancy, the size of fetal egg 0,5 cm
    Ultrasound (10 November) - the size of fetal egg 2,5 cm, CTE -0,9 ,detected heartbeat
    Ultrasound (22 November) - an embryo is not visualized, the size of fetal egg 2,4 cm
    Around week 6-7 the baby stopped developing (supposed to be 9 weeks)
    23 November - surgical abortion, antibiotics.

    During the pregnancy i did the following tests:

    October 20
    1) Anticardiolipin IgG: 18,0 (norm 0-48)
    Anticardiolipin IgM: 17,2 (norm 0-44)
    October 13
    2) Lupus Anticoagulant - negative
    November 12
    Lupus Anticoagulant - negative
    3) Progesterone-normal
    4) DHEA -3,0 (norm 0,9-3,6)

    Tests results after clinical abortion:
    November 26
    anti-CMV IgG (CMV)-positive
    anti-CMV IgM (CMV)-negative
    anti-HSV, type 1,2 IgG (herpes) - positive
    anti-HSV, type 1,2 IgM (herpes) - negative

    If you could please advise me what i could do or what other tests there're to run?
    What could be the reason of my pregnancies termination?
    Thanks you a lot in advance
    Looking forward to your response.
    Sincerely, Natalia
    I had 2 doctors during my pregnancies,but one doctor refused to deal with my problem. Another doctor said, that my analysies are good and she saw no reason why miscarriages. On the beginning of the month I will go to genetics

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Natalia! I don't intend on reading this long chart, that's not what I come here for. Ask a live doctor what the reason is, not strangers on Yahoo Answers. I am sorry that you have herpes.

      Sincerely, Hi Omg Omg Hi


Anticardiolipin Syndrome Symptoms

Thrombophilia is not a new disease, but it has become a more recognized and discussed topic because of an increased ability to test for and identify some of the underlying contributing abnormalities. "If you had asked me about this problem 10 to 20 years ago, I would have called it a hyper coagulate state," says Birmingham physician Luis F. Pineda, MD, MSHA. "Better research has helped us realize that there are specific abnormalities that we can call by name. Most of these conditions are preventable and treatable, and when they are recognized we often can help people avoid problems."

Some of the disorders that cause thrombophilia are inherited. Many of these result from changes in the amount or function of certain proteins in the blood that control clotting. For example, activated protein C resistance (Factor V Leiden mutation), a specific mutation in the prothrombin gene (prothrombin 20210 mutation), and a deficiency of protein C, protein S, or antithrombin all cause an increase in the production of fibrin, an important protein involved in clot formation.

Other disorders that cause thrombophilia are acquired after birth. These disorders include disseminated intravascular coagulation (often associated with cancer), and antiphospholipid antibody (anticardiolipin) syndrome (including the presence of the lupus "anticoagulant"), which increase the risk of clotting because of over-activation of blood clotting factors.

Other factors may increase the risk of clotting along with thrombophilia. Many involve conditions that result in a person not moving around sufficiently, causing blood to pool in the veins, such as paralysis, prolonged sitting (especially in confined spaces as in a car or airplane), prolonged bed rest, recent surgery, and heart attack. Heart failure also is a risk factor. Conditions that result in increased pressure on veins, including obesity and pregnancy, also increase risk.

In a worst case, a thrombosis can bea leg clot that travels to a lung and results in the death of a patient or a stroke. "Those are the bad cases. The minor cases that we are more aware of include women who have problems getting pregnant," Pineda says. "Abnormal clotting between the uterus and placenta can be the cause of the problem."

Pineda says the condition seen most often is varicose veins, typically in women. Deep veins operate with a system of valves, and varicose veins occur when a clot develops at a valve. "The clot causes the valve to leak blood backward. Then the superficial vein system takes over and becomes a varicose vein," he says. "Sometimes vascular surgeons treat this condition and the veins get worse. That's because the patient has thrombophilia."

Pineda suggests that physicians who are prescribing hormone replacement therapy for female patients consider its risks on certain patients. "Studies have shown that women on hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk for ovarian and breast cancers as well as blood clots," he says.

Excessive clotting can result in other problems, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia. "These people may have clots in small vessels in the brain which can result in a small stroke. In most cases, smaller veins take over and the patient never knows he or she has suffered a stroke," Pineda says. "However, if the patient has a clotting problem and has lots of these small strokes, loss of brain function usually occurs."

A patient's primary physician will recognize most of these problems and treat them accordingly. It's often harder, though, to make the determination of thrombophilia, Pineda says. A person who has had at least two separate instances of a blood clot without an apparent predisposing factor may have an inherited thrombophilia disorder. An inherited disorder may also be suspected if a person with an initial blood clot has a family history of blood clots. A young healthy person who develops an initial clot for no apparent reason may have an inherited disorder.

Blood tests that measure the amount or activity of different proteins that control clotting are used to identify specific inherited disorders that cause thrombophilia. These tests are usually more accurate when performed after a blood clot has been treated.

The inherited disorders that cause thrombophilia are incurable. People who have had two or more clots are especially likely to be advised to take the anticoagulant drugs for the rest of their lives. When a person has had only one clot, warfarin or heparin to prevent future clots may be used only when the person is at higher risk for clot formation, including during a period of prolonged bed rest.

Luis F Pineda MD

Nutrition and Recipes for Cancer Patients - Cooking With Cancer

Antiserum

However, the antibodies contained in a monoclonal preparation are typically derived from a particular clonal type that is then ready to recognize the very same epitope at similar specificity level. For instance, a particular animal like that of rodent or bunny is being injected with all the combination of adjuvant and antigen preparation as a way to derive polyclonal antibodies. This commonly focuses on the natural immunity of the creatures; that is further ignited so as to produce B cells that will secrete an antibody that's works with the particular form of antigen. The animal's serum will then be collected after several days or months.

Antiserum Purchasing

Antiserum refers to the blood serum which has components of polyclonal antibodies. These particular personalized formulations of polyclonal antibodies are often made up on specific antibody specifies that most probably recognize similar kinds of antigen. Larger animals are preferred for this method since the volume of serum can be greater as compared to smaller creatures. Institutional rules are obeyed in animal operations for obtaining anti-serum. These regulations comply with particular humane points as well as in the correct utilization of adjuvant that comprises injection quantity and also number of sites for each animal, selection of adjuvant kind, and also sites and also paths of injection operations. Rules with correct restraint of animals and also use of anesthesia are also considered to avoid difficulties for both staff and also the animals concerned.

Monoclonal vs. Polyclonal

These polyclonal antibodies are commonly used in clinical medication and also in tests for numerous reasons. It is less expensive and simpler to produce polyclonal formulations of anti-bodies rather than that of monoclonal formulations of antibodies. They're also quite adaptive to severe variations in pH levels and temperatures. The most frequent medical purpose of these polyclonal antibody formulations is to effectively identify passive immunity to particular forms of illnesses.

The Hazardous Strain

To properly show this; let's take for example the dreadful Ebola virus; wherein the one productive treatment is transfusion of the serum antibodies derived from a person who has endured similar disease. Ebola virus is a deadly illness that has generated fatalities in locations afflicted with its perilous strain. The virus grows immediately that the body's defense system is captured off-guard and can't swiftly retaliate to battle the condition. Death is almost estimated and swift in this particular situation. The only real strategy that'll be highly effective to combat this type of illness is the antiserum of another individual who has endured the ailment. Anti-serum could also be used for other healthcare applications most notably an antivenin and also antitoxin preparations. These are extracted from insects, harmful reptiles or snakes, and also arachnids. Most of these anti-serum formulations are ideal for treatment of people assaulted or injured by the above mentioned animals.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    plzzz tell about the history of antiserum. Who coined the term antiserum and when he coined?
    history of antiserum.
    thank u for the answers.I actually want the name of scientist who coined the term antiserum.I also want the year in which antiserum is discoverd

    • ANSWER:
      Antiserum (plural: antisera) is blood serum containing polyclonal antibodies. Antiserum is used to pass on passive immunity to many diseases. Passive antibody transfusion from a previous human survivor is the only effective treatment for Ebola infection.
      [edit]How it works

      Antibodies in the antiserum bind the infectious agent or antigen. The immune system then recognizes foreign agents bound to antibodies and triggers a more robust immune response. The use of antiserum is particularly effective against pathogens which are capable of evading the immune system in the unstimulated state but which are not robust enough to evade the stimulated immune system. The existence of antibodies to the agent therefore depends on an initial "lucky survivor" whose immune system by chance discovered a counteragent to the pathogen, or a "host species" which carries the virus but does not suffer from its effects. Further stocks of antiserum can then be produced from the initial donor or from a donor organism that is inoculated with the pathogen and cured by some stock of preexisting antiserum.
      Mutations in the pathogen can decrease or eliminate the effectiveness of antiserum.

      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiserum
      www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/28606/antiserum
      www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Antiserum

  2. QUESTION:
    How is antiserum to a specific antigen generated?

    • ANSWER:
      Antibodies in the antiserum bind the infectious agent. The immune system then recognizes foreign agents bound to antibodies and triggers a more robust immune response. The use of antiserum is particularly effective against pathogens which are capable of evading the immune system in the unstimulated state but which are not robust enough to evade the stimulated immune system. The existence of antibodies to the agent therefore depends on an initial "lucky survivor" whose immune system by chance discovered a counteragent to the pathogen, or a "host species" which carries the virus but does not suffer from its effects. Further stocks of antiserum can then be produced from the initial donor or from a donor organism that is inoculated with the pathogen and cured by some stock of preexisting antiserum.

  3. QUESTION:
    600 microliters of antiserum are added to 2400 microliters of diluent will give a final dilution of?
    answer is 1:5 but how to you get that answer

    • ANSWER:
      Final voume is 600µl + 2400 µl.= 3,000µl
      You have 600µl in 3,000µl
      divide through by 600
      which is 1 : 5

  4. QUESTION:
    how your results would have been affected if the antiserum was made in rabbits against duck serum proteins.?
    Describe how your results would have been affected if the antiserum was made in rabbits against duck serum proteins.

    • ANSWER:
      If you are making a serum for rabbits, then it would have no affect against another strain such as the duck. For a real-life perspective, just because you get a flu shot doesn't mean you have the shot for all strains.

  5. QUESTION:
    whats the difference between an antiserum (antitoxin) and a vaccine?
    please give an answer thats only a couple sentences long but explains it pretty darn good or just good =P

    • ANSWER:
      Requiring an antitoxin means you already have something in your body you need to get rid of. A vaccine stops something from invading your body.

  6. QUESTION:
    when red cells are mixed with a matching antiserum they will clump. What is this clumping called?

    • ANSWER:
      Agglutination-to mach the for the group we do slide test-to see no agglutination occures to given know group seran and oncross varifing the other groups there will be clumping even suchh a clumping is also is agglutintion

  7. QUESTION:
    When antiserum is injected into an animal, what are the benefits (or not) of passive vs. active immunization?

    • ANSWER:
      The primary benefit of injection of antiserum (passive immunity) is that it is immediate; there is no time lag required for the body to start producing its own antibodies. The main detriments to the use of an antiserum is that the passive immunity doesn't last, and the recipient may become sensitized to the foreign antibody protein.

  8. QUESTION:
    Never been vaccinated against tetanus, given antiserum, results in?
    Patient has potentially been exposed to clostridium tetani, the bacterium that causes tetanus. Tetanus is a condition where a toxin produced by c. tetani causes muscles to continuously contract (tetanus). If she has never been vaccinated against tetanus, she is given a shot of antiserum against the bacterium. This results in:

    a. A violent death due to asphyxiation
    b. Attraction of phagocytes to the bacteria
    c. A systemic inflammatory response
    d. Generation of a fever

    • ANSWER:
      Please tell me that you're not a med student trying to get your future patients to do your own work.

  9. QUESTION:
    Why is someone who has previously received a tetanus shot given a tetanus booster,and one who hasnt antiserum?

    • ANSWER:
      To answer your question (and it would seem I'm the only one who has) a tetanus booster is given to those who have been previously vaccinated because it "reminds" the body how to produce the necessary antibodies. These people have produced their own antibodies and are said to have active immunization.

      The antiserum may be given to those who have not been vaccinated because the anitserum already contains antibodies and provides passive immunization for someone who may have been exposed to the bacteria and needs antibodies now.

  10. QUESTION:
    mix lebra dog bitten badly on 23 rd july 2009. ANTISERUM and ANTIRABIES injected to person.dog died on13aug?
    mix lebra dog has bitten very badly on 23 rd july2009. antiserum and antirabbies was given to the patient within 24 hours. Dog died on 13th august. Thumbnail still not came.Can there be any problem now pls reply as soon as possible.

    • ANSWER:
      I didn't get your question..do you mean a labrador (mixed breed) bit somebody and died after sometime???I am sorry your question is quite confusing..I can't help you!

  11. QUESTION:
    If we Inject Snake Venom Antiserum without Biting snake, what happen?

    • ANSWER:
      are u crazy ! why would you want to do that , there are so many red lights flashing about this question you could do serious harm to your self

  12. QUESTION:
    prevention of a disease by the injection of an antiserum containing gamma globulins is an example of?
    a. passive immunity
    b. autoimmunity
    c. cell-mediated immunity
    d. clonal selection
    e. active immunity

    • ANSWER:
      (a). It's called "passive" because the body does not have to actively make the antibodies.

      Specifically, this is "artificial passive" immunity.

  13. QUESTION:
    Estimatedly, how long would it take for an antiserum to be made?

    • ANSWER:
      depends on the mutations and the right antidotes available.

      could takes hours to weeks, then production could be longer

      maybe never.

  14. QUESTION:
    When antiserum is subjected to electrophoresis, the gamma globulin band contains mostly...?
    a. IgM
    b. IgA
    c. IgD
    d. IgE
    e. IgG

    • ANSWER:
      e. IgG

  15. QUESTION:
    Rabbit antiserum confusion?
    If i have some rabbit antiserum to human albumin and add it to human albumin, would it react? I have managed to confuse myself for the last hour with this so could someone please give me an explanation and the answer? I have a load of these questions to do this afternoon and its going very slowly :)

    Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      it would as long as they are in the right proportion to each other. both an excess of antiserum (aka prozone) or an excess of the antigen, which in this case is human albumin, will not be ideal for lattice formation so little or no reaction will take place

  16. QUESTION:
    What can be reasons for cross reactivity of antisera of different animal origin in immunodiffusion?
    In our lab we detect origin of species in unknown blood samples. But sometimes I get cross reaction of the antisera of diffrent animals with each other. Usually antisera of a particualar animal source gives reaction with another animal source which can be inferred as false reaction. But I don't what can be methods for its identification and obtaining specificity.

    • ANSWER:
      What are you talking about? I have no idea. You need your own geeky science website.

  17. QUESTION:
    If a person dont get a tetanus shot, and is given an antiserum shot against tetanus. Explain the treatmentr?

    • ANSWER:
      Tetanus shot- what is being inroduced here is a vaccine (containig weakened tetanus antigen ). This will trigger your system to build the antibody to defend you for future exposure to the tetanus bacteria. Now, if in case the person did not get the vaccine thus he or she does not have the anitbody yet and unfortunately the person was exposed to possible tetanus infection, anti-serum is inroduced (injected) right away.This is already antibody so that it will combat the bacteria fast. No need to wait for the body to produce the defense system.But unlike the vaccine, this will not last long. That is why it takes a couple of shots of anti-serum to make sure that it will work in defending the patient's body. Hope this helps. God bless

  18. QUESTION:
    What is antisera?. is it another name for antiserum, or antigen. please I want to know.?

    • ANSWER:

  19. QUESTION:
    could you explain me procedure of makeing snake`s antiserum?
    please full biological and medical version

    • ANSWER:
      Take venomous snake.
      "Milk" snake by annoying it, then push the venom out from its cheek reservoirs into a bottle.
      Inject a small amount of venom into a horse.
      Later, inject more venom into the horse.
      Later, draw blood from the horse.
      Use purification techniques to remove blood cells.
      Use other purification techniques to remove other undesirable horse blood stuff.

  20. QUESTION:
    What is an antiserum shot?

    • ANSWER:
      Blood contains antibodies against disease. If the serum of blood is removed the antibodies can be isolated. They can then be given to another person to give immunity to a particular disease;

  21. QUESTION:
    Antiserum Confusion......?
    Serum obtained from an immunized host that contains the desired antibodies is called antiserum? true or false.

    • ANSWER:
      True. It's serum that contains specifric antibodies...

  22. QUESTION:
    Why Not Use ANTISERUM instead of a Vaccine against H1N1?
    From Wikipedia: Antiserum is blood serum containing polyclonal antibodies. Antiserum is used to pass on passive immunity to many diseases. Passive antibody transfusion from a previous human survivor is the only effective treatment for Ebola infection.

    Also according to other stuff I've read, Antiserum provides passive immunity that lasts about 6-12 months. A flu shot basically lasts same amount of time. The difference is antiserum already contains actual antibodies from someone who GOT infected with a disease, fought it off and SURVIVED. So it's practically guaranteed to work. The vaccine is being rushed through testing, it will probably work, but also might not work. So I am wondering why they do not use antiserum against flu, specially the current pandemic, instead of a vaccine? Lots of people already beat this flu, they got the antibodies against it, why not pay these people a small fee to harvest their antibodies and give it to others? Just something to think about!
    To cabbage, you have a closed mind. Try to be open minded. The scientists (all or most of which are employed by giant pharmaceutical companies) are all working on a VACCINE. My question is why is no one seems to be considering using antisera against flu or H1N1 specifically, could it be because it does not work against flu, or impractical, etc? I referenced Wikipedia to show that antiserum is used for many diseases, to show that it's not some fancy experimental thing.
    H1N1, like all flu viruses, has the potential to mutate, but has so far remained stable. If it does mutate, then the vaccines being developed now will ALSO BE USELESS. Since those vaccines were developed from viral cultures taken several months before the actual vaccines will be delivered to immunization centers.

    • ANSWER:
      oh wow, you must be more brilliant than all of the professional scientists working on the problem. i know what it is - they've probably never heard of this 'wikipedia' you are quoting. if they did then they'd realize all of their knowledge was basically useless since there's wikipedia now. antiserum, ha!

  23. QUESTION:
    What are potential uses for a human - animals relationship test using serums?
    Different animal serums (frog, cow, chimpanzee, frog, monkey, human) were mixed with human antiserum, and if they had a lot of agglutination (precipitation), then they were more closely related to humans. What are potential uses for this test? Please give as many logical and good reasons as possible!
    Thanks :)

    • ANSWER:
      Is it really useful nowadays, we have genetics know, and can simply do a DNA test to establish relations such as that.

      How do you exactly measure the amount of agglutination? Is it reproducible?

  24. QUESTION:
    What are antigens and antiserums as they relate to human blood?

    • ANSWER:
      Antigens in reference to the ABO Blood Group to which your first question was based are:

      Found on the red blood cell membrane. They are markers that are genetically coded for to determine your blood type. To try to explain in a simpler form lets say that "A" blood type people have "A's" on the surface of their red blood cells. "B" blood group people have " B's " on their red blood cells. That would mean that "AB" blood group would have both "A's and B 's" on the surface of their red blood cells. Group "O" is a little different because those red blood cells don't have any antigens on their red blood cell surfaces.

      Because the body doesn't want to do damage to itself it recognizes parts of your body as self and it won't make antibodies to something it shouldn't. So an "A" blood group person won't make anti-A because it would attach to their own red blood cells and cause harm but they will make antibodies to what the body/blood doesn't have.

      A little background information for you. In a person's blood there are "red blood cells" "white blood cells and platelets" which are solids and the liquid part of the blood is called serum. In the serum is where the antibodies are. When blood is taken the cells will settle out to the bottom of the tube and the serum will be on the top. The serum colour looks almost like ginger ale. It is the red blood cells themselves that give blood the red colour.

      Group A - has "A" antigens on their red blood cells and anti-B antibodies in their serum
      Group B - has "B" antigens on their red blood cells and anti-A antibodies in their serum
      Group AB - has "A" and "B" antigens on their red blood cells and no antibodies in their serum
      Group O - has no antigens on their red blood cells and has anti-A and anti-B and anti-AB antibodies in their serum

      When grouping a persons blood to see what types of antigens there are on the surface you would use "antiserums". Antiserums are antibodies in serum that are purified and very specific. Antigen and Antibody reactions are very specific to start with meaning that it is like a lock and key. Only the right key can open a lock. So Anti-A antiserum is like a key that has an "A" on the end of it and it can only fit on an "A" antigen. Earlier I said think of "A" antigens on a red blood cells as little "A's" all over the cell surface. If we add anti-A antiserum the "A's" on the end of the antibodies will attach specifically to the "A's" on the red blood cell surface. When they "A" antibodies in the antiserum attach to the "A's" on the red blood cell surface it causes the red blood cells to clump together which is a positive reaction and then we know the red blood cells have "A's" on them and the person would be classified as a Group A.

      Antiserums - or antibodies in liquid serum - can be made by injecting another species with human antigens and have the non human species produce antibodies to the human antigens. The non human species makes antibodies to human antigens because it is foreign to them and their immune system is doing what it is supposed to do. The antibodies are then extracted and purified for use. Usually mice, rabbits, horses, etc. are used.

      But for ABO blood grouping the easiest source for antiserums are the other blood groups. An "A" person makes anti-B. A "B" person makes anti-A. An "O" person makes anti-A, anti-B and anti-AB which the lab can use along with purchased/manufactured antiserums.

      I hope I helped you some.

  25. QUESTION:
    how is antiserum produced?

    • ANSWER:
      Antiserum is produced by administering the desired antigen to a horse (usually) or other suitable animal. The animal will produce antibodies in response to the antigen. Then the animal is bled and the antibodies are purified.

  26. QUESTION:
    Which is a test to determine patient's blood type by mixing patient's red blood cells with antisera?
    A. Precipitation reaction
    B. Immunofluorescence
    C. Direct agglutination reaction
    D. Passive agglutination reaction
    E. Neutralization reaction

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      direct aggluitination...

  27. QUESTION:
    What would happen if I add dNTP to a poly reactive polyclonal antisera?

    • ANSWER:
      Nothing.

      You can say "Good bye" for your dNTPs

  28. QUESTION:
    why a snake is not affected by its poison?what's the immune power that prevents it from getting affected?
    also say about antiserum got from the snake.

    • ANSWER:
      It doesn't have any special immunity to protein toxins in the venom, it's just stored in specialized glands that keep it from entering the snake's bloodstream. If the snake (or any animal) swallowed venom, it wouldn't be toxic (the proteins in the venom that make it toxic would be digested and destroyed).

      Antiserum is made by taking venom and denaturing the proteins (so they no longer function) and injecting them into the bloodstream of an animal host. This causes the animal to produce antibodies that recognize the venom (as if it were fighting off an infection). The blood from the animal is then taken, the serum (the part of the blood that lacks cells) is extracted and then transfused into someone who was bitten by a snake. The antibodies in the serum will recognize the active venom in the person's blood and neutralize it so that the person won't become as ill as otherwise. It's the same basic principle as vaccination.

      Hope this helps!

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snake_venom
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antivenom

  29. QUESTION:
    Streptococcus pneumoniae bateria often posses cell wall suface antigens that react?
    with Lancefield Group C antiserum. How would you determine if the positive agglutination result is due to a Group C Streptococcus or to S. pneumoniae?

    • ANSWER:
      Streptococcus pneumoniae is alpha-hemolytic.

      The group C streptococci are beta-hemolytic.

  30. QUESTION:
    You could identify an unknown bacterium by all of the following except?
    a. hybridizing a DNA probe from a known bacterium with the unknowns DNA
    b. Making a fatty acid profile of the unknown
    c. specific antiserum agglutinating the unknown
    d. ribosomal RNA sequencing
    e. percentage of guanine + cytosine

    • ANSWER:
      b?

  31. QUESTION:
    Which type of Antibodies (IgG, IgM etc.) and present in Blood Group Testing Antisera ?
    I want to know the Type of Antibodies present in Anti-B and Anti-A solutions. There are Some specific antibodies present against the glycoprotein layer of the RBC's but what is the type of that antibody ?

    • ANSWER:
      Same as in our sera - IgM. This also explains why ABO incompatibility between mother and baby is less of a problem then Rh incompatibility (IgG) as IgG crosses the placenta but IgM doesn't.

  32. QUESTION:
    Is antiserums an injection and what is it?
    is it an injection containing antibodies which provide temporary immunity?

    • ANSWER:
      yes but there are different types of antiserums don't confuse antiserums with preventative vaccinations they aren't the same thing

  33. QUESTION:
    American school general science i need help please help me.?
    1.Smallest known organisms unable to reproduce on their own is called?

    2.Plants Without chlorophyll is called?

    3.Simple animals suck as the amoeba is called?

    4.Simple plants responsible for producing most of the oxygen in the atmosphere is called?

    5.small orhanisms able to reproduce on their own which are both helpful and harmful to human is called?

    The choices
    Algae, Antibodies, Antiserums, Bacteria, Carcinogens, Fungi, Pathogen , Protozoa, Vaccines Or Viruses Please Help Me.

    • ANSWER:
      No offence, but it would be easy if you did it on your own instead of relying on us. You seem lazy.
      It's not hard to type in the question on google.

  34. QUESTION:
    can anyone help. I need to write and essay on the 'uses of synthetic peptides'?
    I need to include: Epitopes, hapten, conjugation, adjuvant(complete & incomplete) also a choice of animal, boosters isolating antiserum & antibody, purifying and testing anitserum & anitbody. Please help!

    • ANSWER:
      polypeptides are found in protein hair conditioning treatments such as Redken products.

  35. QUESTION:
    Describe the procedure you would use to produce antisera for S.pyogenes (flesh eating bacteria)?
    Sub Questions for this Immunology Question- How would you prepare the antigen, what animal would you use, how would you collect the sera.

    • ANSWER:
      What species of animal you use depends on several things, including:
      1. How much serum will you need. If you need more than 1 ml or so, mice would not be good choice. Rabbits would be better.
      2. If you are considering making a monoclonal antibody, you need to use mice.

      Protocol
      1. Grow S. pyogenes on blood agar plates. Isolate a single colony, and grow it overnight in a broth culture.
      2. Centrifuge the cells and wash them 3 times with isotonic saline.
      3. Boil a sample of the washed cells to kill the bacteria.
      4. Mix the killed bacteria with complete Freund's adjuvant.
      5. Using a sterile hypodermic needle, inject 100 µl of the bacteria/adjuvant mixture either i.p. or i.m.
      6. Repeat step 5 once per week for five weeks.
      7. Obtain a blood sample by tail stick using a heparin coated capillary tube, and assay for anti-bacteria antibodies.

  36. QUESTION:
    Is antisera species specific or genre specific?
    We are using antivenom serum for detection of snake poison in snake biting cases. But we r not getting any positive results. I dout that different species of snake should be tested with different antivenom serum.

    • ANSWER:
      Antisera are specific for the antigens described by the suppliers. They are as general or specific as they say (usually). You need antisera for the types of venoms likely to be encountered in your area.

      A source of false - negatives in snake bite can be that the site was washed free of venom. Instruct people NOT to wash the area; just to apply a pressure bandage, and get the casualty to help ASAP, without letting them exert themselves nor move the affected body part (often it is a leg or arm, so this should be splinted.)

  37. QUESTION:
    What was the surgeon's name who performed the first hear transplant in South Africa? I think late 1960's.
    He used an animal antiserum to prevent rejection.
    What was the antiserum called that helped to prevent rejection?
    Hear Transplant sorry about that. Not hear.
    Heart. (I did it again!I am just anxious, and typed to fast.)

    • ANSWER:
      Dr. Christiaan Barnard performed the first heart transplant in 1967. I could not find any info about the use of anything to prevent rejection.

  38. QUESTION:
    Biology help as soon as possible?
    I'm trying to study for my final and we got a sheet with some stuff to study and one of the questions is
    "what are the uses of anti-A and anti-B antisera" does anyone know the answer? Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      These antisera are used in blood typing for the ABO system
      Anti-A serum contains monoclonal antibodies against antigen A. If addition of this to blood sample causes agglutination the person has antigen A
      Anti-B serum contains monoclonal antibodies against antigen B. If addition of this to blood sample causes agglutination the person has antigen B

      If agglutination is observed with both antiA and antiB sera the person has both antigen A and B (blood group AB)
      If agglutination is not observed with either of the antisera than the person is of blood group O (n A or B antigens)

  39. QUESTION:
    Question about immunofixation?
    I'm trying to find out what "diffuse polyclonal reation to all antisera" means on an immunofixation test.

    Thanks in advance for answers.

    • ANSWER:
      Immunofixation is the procedure where blood (plasma) is put into a gel and an electric current sorts the proteins by their sizes. This helps identify antibodies and proteins in the blood sample.

      This test is most commonly done to help rule out or diagnose multiple myeloma. It can also be done to rule out or diagnose certain types of autoimmune diseases such as lupus.

      The presence of monoclonal antibodies might suggest multiple myeloma or other neoplastic conditions, whereas the presence of polyclonal antibodies is more indicative of an inflammatory condition, which might also include some autoimmune diseases. This can also include some types of liver disease.

      My knowledge of this is extremely limited, so your best resource would be the physician ordering the tests. You may want to ask him/her: "What are you trying to rule out?"

      My father-in-law has B-Cell lymphoma, and my mother has a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), so any information I'm sharing comes from personal experience. I am a healthcare teaching assistant, but NOT a licensed medical professional.

      A search for "polyclonal gammopathy" may also be helpful. However, immunology is way too complex for those of us without a medical degree, so a straightforward query of the physician might be your best bet here.

  40. QUESTION:
    what is polyclonal antisera and its uses?

    • ANSWER:
      Generally polyclonal anitbodies are used to bind non-specifically to antigens. For instance, you might use monoclonal antibodies to specifically bind to your protein of intererst. You might then use polyclonal Ab to bind the rest of the proteins i.e. to block off the other available 'slots'

  41. QUESTION:
    naming antisera how do you?
    how do you name for example antiserum X raised by injecting relevant antigens in a horse?

    • ANSWER:
      It goes: [Name of source] anti-[name of antigen]. In this case, Horse anti-X.

      It can be raised against a single antigen, like rabbit anti-actin, or it can be raised against a species's antibodies as a whole, like rabbit anti-mouse.

  42. QUESTION:
    Identifying blood type using anti-sera. Help please! :) ?
    Two drops of blood are used. One is mixed with anti-A antiserum and the other with anti-B antiserum. If the blood agglutinates with anti-B antiserum but not anti-A antiserum, what is the blood type?

    Also, what type(s) of blood could that person accept that he would not make antibodies against?

    Thank you!!!

    :) (:

    • ANSWER:
      He is type B.

      He would be able to receive group B and group O red cells.

  43. QUESTION:
    My Dog was bitten by a Snake, but NOT SURE?
    A Snake attacked my Dog.but not Sure if snake bit my Dog. Anyway i injected Snake Venom Antiserum.. After that he hot very hardly sick.. OMG..
    :'(
    I want to know, if he was injected Snake Venom Antiserum without biting any snake, what happen?
    Please help..!

    • ANSWER:
      wow was this written by a 6 year old?

      snake anti-venom is almost as dangerous as the venom itself, since it's refined from snake venom, so if you give your dog the wrong anti-venom it could kill him

  44. QUESTION:
    Will type A blood react with Anti-A antisera?

    • ANSWER:
      The basics: Yes. Antigens and antibodies react to cause clumping.

      Type A red blood cells have A antigens and Anti-B serum (aka, anti-B antibodies).
      Type B red blood cells have B antigens and Anti-A serum (aka, anti-A antibodies).

      If you mix Type A blood with Type B blood, you get a reaction between the A antigens contained in the Type A blood and the A antibodies contained in the Type B blood. They agglutinate (clump), clogging up the blood vessels and potentially causing death. Type A blood is okay for Type A, because it contains Anti-B serum, not Anti-A.

      I hope this helps! Feel free contact me if you need clarification.

  45. QUESTION:
    i would like a little info about marfans disease?
    sorry i dont think i spelled it right but my mom died from a antiaortic antiserum when she was 24 the doctors think she had marfans but they dont know for shure so now i have to go have a Eco every 3 years so i was wondering if any one else had it or can give me a little info

    • ANSWER:
      and here's the link for the National Marfan Association:

      http://marfan.org/marfan/

  46. QUESTION:
    What serology method?
    that uses enzyme linked anti-human antibodies to identify antibodies to a specific organism in the patient's antiserum.

    • ANSWER:

  47. QUESTION:
    Biology Agglutination?
    How can you determine if agglutination takes place? What does this tell us about a blood sample?

    If Antiserum B is mixed with Type O blood will agglutination occur? Why or why not?
    If Antiserum B is mixed with Type A blood will agglutination occur? Why or why not?
    If Antiserum A is mixed with Type AB blood will agglutination occur? Why or why not?

    • ANSWER:
      a. No, because o type blood contains no b antigens on its surface which would react with b antibodies in the antiserum.
      b. No, a type blood has a antigens on its surface and no b antigens on its surface, therefore the b antibodies from the antiserum can't attach to it.
      c. Yes, ab blood has both a and b antigens on its surface. The b antibodies in the antiserum will bind to the b antigens and result in 'clumping' or agglutination of the blood.

      Hope i helped :)

  48. QUESTION:
    Blood Typing and Antibodies?
    What types of antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, or IgE) are involved in laboratory blood typing? Are those antibodies in the blood or the antiserum containers?

    • ANSWER:
      IgG
      in the antiserum containers

      Blood typing tests for antigen on the red blood cells. The blood of a person is mixed with anti-A, anti-B and anti-Rh IgG antibodies. If an agglutination occurs, the test in positive.

  49. QUESTION:
    Is my fish tank overcrowded?
    In my fish tank I have:
    - One betta
    - Three Zebra Danios
    - One Catfish
    - Three Sunburst Platys
    - Six Fruit Tetra's
    - Three Rosy Pink Danio's
    &
    - One Bushynose Antiserum Pleco
    The tank is 33 Gallons!

    • ANSWER:
      Seems okay but I don't know if I would go any higher. Sort of depends on what type of catfish you have too. The site in my references has a fun little tool for this type of thing.

  50. QUESTION:
    Your red cells agglutinated with both anti-A and anti-B antisera. This means you...?
    A. have A and B antigens on your RBC.
    B. have anti-A and anti-B antibodies in your plasma.
    C. are AB positive.
    Choices A and B are correct
    Choices A, B, and C are correct
    I know A & C are right, I'm stuck on B?

    • ANSWER:
      I go with E.
      Not sure if C is a possibility.

      Choices A, B, and C are correct


Anticardiolipin Blood Test

Thrombophilia is not a new disease, but it has become a more recognized and discussed topic because of an increased ability to test for and identify some of the underlying contributing abnormalities. "If you had asked me about this problem 10 to 20 years ago, I would have called it a hyper coagulate state," says Birmingham physician Luis F. Pineda, MD, MSHA. "Better research has helped us realize that there are specific abnormalities that we can call by name. Most of these conditions are preventable and treatable, and when they are recognized we often can help people avoid problems."

Some of the disorders that cause thrombophilia are inherited. Many of these result from changes in the amount or function of certain proteins in the blood that control clotting. For example, activated protein C resistance (Factor V Leiden mutation), a specific mutation in the prothrombin gene (prothrombin 20210 mutation), and a deficiency of protein C, protein S, or antithrombin all cause an increase in the production of fibrin, an important protein involved in clot formation.

Other disorders that cause thrombophilia are acquired after birth. These disorders include disseminated intravascular coagulation (often associated with cancer), and antiphospholipid antibody (anticardiolipin) syndrome (including the presence of the lupus "anticoagulant"), which increase the risk of clotting because of over-activation of blood clotting factors.

Other factors may increase the risk of clotting along with thrombophilia. Many involve conditions that result in a person not moving around sufficiently, causing blood to pool in the veins, such as paralysis, prolonged sitting (especially in confined spaces as in a car or airplane), prolonged bed rest, recent surgery, and heart attack. Heart failure also is a risk factor. Conditions that result in increased pressure on veins, including obesity and pregnancy, also increase risk.

In a worst case, a thrombosis can bea leg clot that travels to a lung and results in the death of a patient or a stroke. "Those are the bad cases. The minor cases that we are more aware of include women who have problems getting pregnant," Pineda says. "Abnormal clotting between the uterus and placenta can be the cause of the problem."

Pineda says the condition seen most often is varicose veins, typically in women. Deep veins operate with a system of valves, and varicose veins occur when a clot develops at a valve. "The clot causes the valve to leak blood backward. Then the superficial vein system takes over and becomes a varicose vein," he says. "Sometimes vascular surgeons treat this condition and the veins get worse. That's because the patient has thrombophilia."

Pineda suggests that physicians who are prescribing hormone replacement therapy for female patients consider its risks on certain patients. "Studies have shown that women on hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk for ovarian and breast cancers as well as blood clots," he says.

Excessive clotting can result in other problems, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia. "These people may have clots in small vessels in the brain which can result in a small stroke. In most cases, smaller veins take over and the patient never knows he or she has suffered a stroke," Pineda says. "However, if the patient has a clotting problem and has lots of these small strokes, loss of brain function usually occurs."

A patient's primary physician will recognize most of these problems and treat them accordingly. It's often harder, though, to make the determination of thrombophilia, Pineda says. A person who has had at least two separate instances of a blood clot without an apparent predisposing factor may have an inherited thrombophilia disorder. An inherited disorder may also be suspected if a person with an initial blood clot has a family history of blood clots. A young healthy person who develops an initial clot for no apparent reason may have an inherited disorder.

Blood tests that measure the amount or activity of different proteins that control clotting are used to identify specific inherited disorders that cause thrombophilia. These tests are usually more accurate when performed after a blood clot has been treated.

The inherited disorders that cause thrombophilia are incurable. People who have had two or more clots are especially likely to be advised to take the anticoagulant drugs for the rest of their lives. When a person has had only one clot, warfarin or heparin to prevent future clots may be used only when the person is at higher risk for clot formation, including during a period of prolonged bed rest.

Luis F Pineda MD

Nutrition and Recipes for Cancer Patients - Cooking With Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    How do i go about getting a 2nd opinion from a hospital?
    I have been seeing a consultant about vasculitis since feb, although i have been getting symptoms since oct last year, I am having blood test after blood test and they do not know the cause of it..... I was tested for anticardiolipin and they say i'm on the border line... but nothing specific. I have two children and they dont seem to want to do anything about it. Should I go back to my GP or ask the consultant at the hospital to see someone higher? What would you do?

    • ANSWER:
      You can go to another physician. You have the right to have a second opinion. Just make sure it is noted as second opinion so that insurance pays for it.

  2. QUESTION:
    i need some help understanding my test results?
    i am so not understanding those doctors. and i really want to know in plain english what i am having.
    so i went to my hematologist. to get my blood tested again and this is what i'm not understanding
    anticardiolipin ab, igg,qn
    82 positive
    anticardiolipin ab, igm, qn
    84 positive
    he also said my protein c level is 50 and he worries about that. i'm having another bloodtest done .
    my question is why i have to get 3 times tested for the same thing and what does this all mean?

    • ANSWER:
      You doctor is the best one to answer all of your questions./

  3. QUESTION:
    Elevated Anticardiolipin Antibodies?
    Anyone out there have elevated Anticardiolipin Antibodies? I had blood work done recently, which revealed that I have an moderately high level of IgM ACA. I will be tested again at the end of the month to confirm that it's not transiently high, but I'm not too happy about this.
    If you have had this or have this, how's your health? How serious did your doctor make this out to be?

    • ANSWER:
      An antibody directed against cardiolipin. They are the most widely accepted and tested for immune factor. Approximately 80% of patients who have an antiphospholipid antibody problem will test positive for anticardiolipin antibodies, but the remaining 20% will test positive for one of the other six antiphospholipid antibodies. Some of these conditions can be treated with steroids, immunoglobulins, or other means.

      It is used to help investigate inappropriate blood clot formation, to help determine the cause of recurrent miscarriage, or as part of an evaluation for antiphospholipid syndrome.

      It sounds like you are in good hands.

  4. QUESTION:
    Do you think I really have SLE? and is Plaquenil right for me? :o ) Pleasssse help me!!?
    Hi there,

    I have a history (about 4 years or so) of dizzy spells, blurred and double vision, pins and needles in my face, migraines and tiredness. I went to the doctors for blood tests and it came back that I had past infections of ross river, barmah forest virus and epstein-barr. I also had an ESR of 103 and a few abnormalities in my blood but nothing else major.

    I was referred to see a general physician bit didnt quite get there before I had a major seizure (followed by 2 more in hospital). I had a few tests done and my EEG and CT came back normal, but my MRI showed up 4 lesions in my brain. I tested positive to ANA, and weakly positive to anti-DNA. I had a high titer of anticardiolipin antibodies in my blood as well. The neurologist diagnosed me with definate SLE, but my immunologist said it was only likely that I had SLE, and that the anticardiolipin was causing my problems?! The immunologist did more blood tests and it came back that was ANA was now only slightly raised and my Anti-DNA was now negative.

    Is this normal or does this indicate that it isn't SLE? I have been trying to look up whether these values only increase during flare ups, but havent been able to find anything.

    Also, I have been started on Plaquinil, but have since been extremely dizzy everyday (feeling almost like I am going to collapse) and I wanted to know if anyone knows if plaquinil would be causing that or if its just a coincidence, and if you even think this is the right medication for me.

    I have felt very lost these past few weeks, and it seems nobody (the neurologist or immunologist) can give me a straight answer, or that they even understand each others perspective. :S I have already had 7 weeks off from work, and am still unsure if I can go back yet or not which means I am also broke (to add to my stress's!!) I would really appreciate it if somebody can give me some advice on what to do :o )

    • ANSWER:

  5. QUESTION:
    Bruise easily, afraid I may also have a blood clot?
    I have always bruised easily. However in the past year I have been noticing that it is worse. I always have five or more bruises on my legs. Also, it is always on my legs! I do bump my legs on things occasionally and sometime I would expect a bruise, but others, the bump was so minimal that I dont wxpect to bruise- and then I find a huge brown bruise on me!

    Also, I fear that I may have a blood clot in my left upper thigh about four inches above and to the right of my knee. I am on birth control and blood clots can come from taking that. I dont necessarily feel a lump there all the time but after standing sometimes or after physical activity such as climbing stairs, I feel a throbbing pain in that spot and a slight lump. This has been going on since last summer. I went to the doctor and told her about the pain in my leg and she told me to take advil!! I also expressed to her "my mother's concern" that it may be a blood clot. I am embarrassed to tell the doctor what I think it might be because it is such a serious thing...

    Last year I had some blood work done because of some things that were going on with my period (bleeding more than usual, feeling dizzy and faint). My doctor ordered a hypercoaguability panel and these were the results (I have Kaiser so I can see them online): Anticardiolipin level is elevated. This may indicate hypercoagulability.
    Patients with chronic elevations of Factor VIII greater than 150% of normal may
    have an increased thrombotic risk. Factor VIII levels are variable and depend on
    blood type status and may act as an acute phase reactant. Patients should not
    be evaluated after a thrombotic event if anticoagulated, and then 2-3 weeks
    after anticoagulant therapy has been discontinued. All abnormal results should
    be verified by repeat testing.

    However, they did some more blood work and found everything to be fine...

    Should I go to a different doctor and express my fear of a blood clot? Or am I getting all worked up over nothing?

    Thanks!
    I am 19 and female.
    I do not exercise and I am not overweight.

    • ANSWER:
      If its something that will continually worry you, go to the doctor and have them check it out. You will feel much better to know. It also could be something like anemia making you bruise easily. But go and tell them your fears, its the only way to resolve it! And if it is a clot, and it migrates, it could be very dangerous. Better safe than sorry!

  6. QUESTION:
    Do you know about antiphospholid blood disorders (may cause miscarriages)?
    I wanted to let some people know that about a disorder that you may have if you have had multiple miscarriages. It is called antiphospholipid syndrome; aka - anticardiolipin antibody syndrome; itc. There are several names. However, this is abnormal blood clotting disorder that may be occuring if you have had 3 or more miscarriages. Some doctors do not know about this and some patients do not check for the antibodies until after having several miscarriages. I had tested positive to it a few times and negative some others. I had 3 miscarriages, none can be proven that the blood disorder was the culprit but this disorder can also be a problem for men as well, any blood cloting problem can be a problem.

    • ANSWER:
      yes because I have such a disorder. I have Factor V Leiden. I just wanted you to know that with proper treatment you can have a child. I have two beautiful girls. But it took lots of Lovenox injections to safety get them here. But it was well worth it. Good luck to you.

  7. QUESTION:
    I'm freaking out - Someone please help explain this....?
    So, I had my 8 week tests done and one came back abnormal. My doc said that the syphilis test came back negative but the rpr portion crossed with an antibody so they are testing me further. They took blood from me yesterday saying it was for anticardiolipin antibody and that if the test comes back negative, we do nothing. if it comes back positive, he'll put me on baby aspirin and my chances of miscarriage drop dramatically. I'm freaking out because I'm just not understanding what is going on. I've googled and that confuses me more! I'm 10 weeks now, we saw the baby yesterday and it looked wonderful, waved at me, 182bpm (he said he liked to see it that high in the first trimester) and all looked great! Has anyone heard of this testing or been through my experience?? Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      ive never heard of that and im sorry i cant be much help other than to say take it easy! dont stress as that can cause your chances of a miscarriage to go up. i hope all is well with baby :)

  8. QUESTION:
    I'm 5 weeks pregnant and taking aspirin and progesterone, is it safe?
    I’ve had three consecutive miscarriages due to blood clotting disorder, anticardiolipin syndrome, that I didn’t know about until last year that I had tests done. I’ve since become pregnant ,5 weeks pregnant, and know what I have to do now. My doctor prescribed baby aspirin daily and 100mg progesterone twice daily. I’ve been on it for about a week. I’m scared, confused, nervous, hopeful, etc. Has anyone, and I’m sure many have, experienced what I am experiencing? I need advise and hope, but most importantly, prayer. Please share your story with me.
    Changing my question a little, don't know how to edit. :(

    I guess I can say that I know it's okay to take the aspirin and progestrone since my doctor did prescribe it, I guess what I want to hear now is other womens experience with the two meds. I want to stay positive and have hope, that's all.

    I’ve had three consecutive miscarriages due to blood clotting disorder, anticardiolipin syndrome, that I didn’t know about until last year that I had tests done. I’ve since become pregnant ,5 weeks pregnant, and know what I have to do now. My doctor prescribed baby aspirin daily and 100mg progesterone twice daily. I’ve been on it for about a week. I’m scared, confused, nervous, hopeful, etc. Has anyone, and I’m sure many have, experienced what I am experiencing? I need advise and hope, but most importantly, prayer. Please share your story with me.

    • ANSWER:
      If you have more than one miscarriage, baby aspirin can be used as well as progesterone suppositories to prevent another miscarriage. The risk of miscarriage is 15-20% of every pregnancy. There is nothing you can do to cause a miscarriage and there is nothing you can do to prevent a miscarriage. However, if you have a blood clotting disorder, such as with Lupus and antiphospholid and anticardiolypin syndrome, baby aspirin will help. Aspirin has been found to help women who have recurrent miscarriages and high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies, which can cause the blood to become much thicker than usual and develop clots. If you have a problem with your "luteal phase" (the time of the month from ovulation until your next period) or if you have a decrease in your circulating progesterone, then progesterone will help. Progesterone (brand names include Provera, Endometrin, Crinone, Prometrium or Cyclogest) is one of the primary female reproductive hormones, which is produced immediately after ovulation and helps build up and ready the endometrium for implantation of a fertilized egg. Physicians may prescribe progesterone supplements if your corpus luteum does not produce enough progesterone.

      Since you added more information, I decided to add to this post also:

      My neice has anticardiolypin/antiphospholipid syndrome and was scared to death to get pregnant at all. When she finally got the ok from her doctor specialist at Duke to try and get pregnant, her test indicated something wrong with her Thyroid gland. She went through Thyroid Cancer and ablasion of her thyroid gland. A year later at 36 yrs old she became pregnant. So much knowlege has been gained in the recent few years about your and her illness. She was put on the 2 drugs same as you, and was so scared just like you. They took her off the progesterone at 30 wks, and she continued with the asprin and delivered a fine healthy girl just a few months ago. I wanted to add this to my post and to wish you good luck, and offer a prayer for you. I know you are so excited about this pregnancy, and faced with the remembrances of those past losses and the grieving and disappointments they brought you. Just don't give up, and I pray for you, that God Blesses you with a healthy baby. Just leave it all in God's hands.


Sjogrens

Sjgren's syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disorder of probable autoimmune nature. Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the abnormal production of extra antibodies in the blood that are directed against various tissues of the body. About 50% of the time Sjgren's syndrome occurs alone, and 50% of the time it occurs in the presence of another connective tissue disease. The classic signs of the Sjgren's syndrome, therefore, includes enlargement of the parotid glands with mucosal dryness manifest by dry mouth (xerostomia) and dry eyes (xerophthalmia). Sjogren's syndrome is also associated with rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Sjogren's syndrome that only involves gland inflammation (resulting dry eyes and mouth, etc.), and is not associated with a connective tissue disease, is referred to as primary Sjogren's syndrome. Secondary Sjogren's syndrome involves not only gland inflammation, but is also associated with a connective tissue disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or scleroderma.

Symptoms associated with Sjgren's are caused by the infiltration of immune-system cells, usually B and T lymphocytes, into the glands responsible for secreting fluid. This condition can affect people of any age, but symptoms usually appear between the ages of 45 and 55. In Sjogren's syndrome, your immune system attacks the glands that make tears and saliva. Sjgren's may also cause dryness of other organs, affecting the kidneys, GI tract, blood vessels, lung, liver, pancreas, and the central nervous system. Many patients experience debilitating fatigue and joint pain. Symptoms can plateau, worsen, or go into remission. While some people experience mild symptoms, others suffer debilitating symptoms that greatly impair their quality of life. Virtually all organs may be involved. The disease commonly affects the eyes, mouth, parotid gland, lungs, kidneys, skin, and nervous system. Sjogren's syndrome can also cause problems in other parts of the body, including the joints, lungs, muscles, kidneys, nerves, thyroid gland, liver, pancreas, stomach and brain.

Sjgren's occurs in all age groups in both women and men. It is estimated to strike as many as 4 million people in the United States. Sjogren's Syndrome is also found more commonly in families that have members with other autoimmune illnesses, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune thyroid disease, juvenile diabetes, etc. Sjgren's syndromedryness, fatigue, pain, head and neck complaints, hoarseness, or hearing losscan also occur as a result of medication use, anxiety and depression, or normal aging. The majority of the patients with Sjgren's syndrome have symptoms related to diminished lacrimal and salivary gland functions. The initial manifestations may be nonspecific, such as arthralgias, Raynaud's phenomenon and fatigue, and usually 8 to 10 years elapse from the initial symptoms to the full-blown development of the disease. Patients usually complain of difficulty in eating dry food (like trying to eat crackers without water), inability to speak continuously, oral soreness, changes in tasting and smelling and fissures of the tongue and lips (angular queilitis).

Treatment is generally symptomatic and supportive. Infections are treated with anti-fungal or antibiotic preparations. Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) has been helpful for some manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Moisture replacement therapies may ease the symptoms of dryness. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used to treat musculoskeletal symptoms. Lacriserts, is used by some to alleviate dry eyes. Two prescription medications, Salagen (pilocarpine hydrochloride) and Evoxac (cevimeline), are available to treat dry mouth.. Serious complications, such as vasculitis, can require immune suppression medications, including cortisone (prednisone and others) and/or azathioprine (Imuran) or cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan). Many of these types of agents are available as over-the-counter products including toothpaste, gum, and mouthwash (Biotene). Vitamin E oil has been used with some success. Infections of the mouth and teeth should be addressed as early as possible in order to avoid more severe complications.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    i have a grandfather that has sjogrens disease and has a running feeling i his mouth what is it?
    i have a grandfather that has sjogrens disease and has a running feeling in his mouth my family and the doctors cant see anything is there anyone that has had the same problem on know someone that has.? And if so what is it? we are desperate for answers its driving my family insane.

    • ANSWER:
      What your Grandfather describes as a "running" feeling is very common with people who suffer from sjogrens disease. Most people describe it as a pins and needles or tingling sensation. The only thing that I can suggest that you try ( if you haven't already) is to have him rinse with Biotene mouth wash. There is also a good medication that helps to produce saliva called Evoxac it has helped alot of people, I know that you said that the doctor can't "see" anything but has your Grandfather had his partoid glands (located in his cheeks) tested. If you can use a gloved hand and feel for any lumps in his cheeks. Many people develop infections in these glands in their cheeks that cause the tingling feeling. I really wish that I could give you more ideas to help him but just keep him well hydrated and have something to drink near him and encourage him to drink. I really would ask the doctor to check the partoid glands in his cheeks...one other thing that I know has helped a little for the people who have the pins and needles sensations is an anti anxiety medication....I wish that I could have given more information to help him but this disease has so few options to help.. I truly wish him well.

  2. QUESTION:
    Is there anyone out their living with Sjogrens? Is dizziness a possible symptom?
    I was just recently diagnosed with Sjogrens Syndrome. I believe that I have suffered from this for years, but was just recently diagnosed. I am experiencing many classic symptoms such as the dry eyes,mouth, and nose. But I am also experiencing body soreness, very slightly swollen hands and feet, some dizziness. The dizziness with some digestive problems.

    • ANSWER:
      My mother has Sjogren's - she was diagnosed more than 15 years ago. While she has all the symptoms you mention and then some, she has never mentioned dizziness. I suppose anything is possible - this disease seems to have some very strange symptoms. I think it would be best to talk to your doctor or rheumatologist to make sure there isn't something else going on.

      Oh - since you've just been diagnosed... the two things she's had to watch the most are sinus infections (more prone because of the lack of mucus to wash things through) and cavities (because of the lack of saliva. Make sure you find doctors who are familiar with Sjogren's so they aren't fighting with you every step of the way.

      Best of luck!

  3. QUESTION:
    What the difference between Sjogrens Syndrome and Lupus which is worse?
    Need to know whether I should worry about if diagnosed with either or. Someone told me it's like living with diabetes online I read one of them can cause Cancer. Can this be true?
    Thank You for your answers they both helped out alot.

    • ANSWER:
      My aunt actually has both syndroms. The Lupus seems to be the one that causes the most hassle. They are both auto-immune so can both effect the boddy in similar ways. I think either can be the worse one depending on treatment and serverity of the conditions.

  4. QUESTION:
    Has anyone else lost part of their eyesight from sjogrens?
    I have lost 80 percent of my vision in my left eye. The doctors say it is from sjogrens syndrome. Would like to know medical protocol other patients had to treat the illness.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi,

      Sjogren's Syndrome is an autoimmune, connective tissue, rheumatic disease. Ninety percent of the people effected are women. It is the second most common rheumatic disease. Read , you are not alone. It can effect various parts of the nervous system and can effect your vision. It is important to see an MD , eye doctor with experience in Sjogren's. If you are asking for medical protocol for Sjogren's, it should be treated by a rheumatologist with interest and experience in Sjogren's. There are a variety of medications to address the underlying inflammation and some that are specific to the specific symptoms. It is important to address the underlying disease to preserve and improve quality of life. There is no quick fix , but there is long range hope and improvement.
      For information on this disease which effects 4 million in the USA see www.sjogrensusa.com . Look at the medical information links which address many of the aspects of Sjogren's and related disorders .

  5. QUESTION:
    What can a person do with a moderate case of sjogrens syndrom to keep her skin from looking dried out?

    This is reply to maisie, I am 45 years old, have been diagnoised a little over 2 years ago. Im on the generic of evoax (sp)

    • ANSWER:
      You do not say how old you are, nor why you have been diagnosed with sjogren's syndrome or whether or not you are on meds for this aliment.
      I myself have this, and have had it since I was a teenager, I am now in my 50's. I have mixed connective tissue illness, which includes systemic lupus
      I have used all types of things during the course of this situation and I can finally say to you that I have found 2 products which work really well for me. I am sure there are many other products that are out there but these are the 2 that I have decided to stick with.
      As far as a prescription---Ammonium Lactate Lotion, 12% works great during the Cleveland cold weathers. LOL
      Kiss My Face-Obsessively natural "Olive & Aloe, this is an ultra Moisturizer Hydratant for sensitive skin-I use this every day and it is wonderful.
      As you know you should be drinking a lot of water and eating good fruit & veg.
      Good luck to you,

  6. QUESTION:
    I am 34 and recently have been diagnosed with Sjogrens Syndrome. The joint pain has been unbearable. ?
    I am on no meds for this condition except restasis for dry eyes. Any suggestions would be very appreciated on meds that work & anything helpful!

    • ANSWER:
      The Best safe suppliment is a liquid Glucosamine and Chondroitin. Fast acting unlike the Glucosamine and Chondroitin tablets that are on the market. I get mine on e bay from D&D enterprise, My dogs even take ! . (read) >> long-anticipated major clinical studies have recently found that Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate, two of the major ingredients in Flexicose, are even better than common pain killers!

      Under the direction of the NIH (National Institutes of Health), one of the world’s foremost medical research centers, 13 highly prestigious research universities in the United States performed this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel assignment, efficacy study on over 1,500 osteoarthritis sufferers. Each participant was given a daily dose of either:
      --glucosamine hydrochloride (one of the main ingredients in Flexicose)
      --chondroitin sulfate (one of the main ingredients in Flexicose)
      --some combination of both
      --200 mg of the prescription painkiller celecoxib, a cox-2 drug (Celebrex)
      --or a placebo

      for 24 weeks. All patients' pain levels were evaluated at the beginning of the study and again at the end of the four weeks.

      The Glucosamine and Chondroitin combination [both are the main ingredients in Flexicose] was found to significantly reduce pain compared to placebo AND Celebrex® (celecoxib), using the WOMAC Pain Index.

  7. QUESTION:
    How does marijuana affect a female person with sjogrens syndrom?

    • ANSWER:

  8. QUESTION:
    Is sjogrens syndrome connected to hereditary elliptocytosis?
    My mother had sjogrens syndrome and i have got hereditary elliptocytosis and haemolysis is this connected to sjogrens syndrome

    • ANSWER:
      Those two conditions appear to be unrelated.

  9. QUESTION:
    Can anyone tell me about Sjogrens Syndrome?
    Is there any kind of cure.. Is is hereditary.. Can it be prevented? Any information would be very useful. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Sjogren's Syndrome is another one of about 100 auto immune disorders.

      N-acetyl cisteine (NAC) can help restore the moisture.

      But it's better to eliminate the source of the problem, which is yeast overgrowth. It's overgrown yeast that pokes holes in the intestinal lining which allows food particles to pass through without being broken down. This leads to auto-immune disorders.

      Here is what I would take in addition to the NAC:

      1- Olive leaf extract or Candistroy (to get control over the overgrown yeast.)
      2- PB-8 or another excellent probiotic (to keep the yeast from spreading again.)
      3- Glutamine (5 gms 2x a day) or IntestiNew (to patch up intestinal holes)
      4- An excellent multi-enzyme (that's different than a multi-vitamin) (to break down your food better)

  10. QUESTION:
    How do people diagnose sjogrens syndrome for sure?

    • ANSWER:
      Here, you will get a very good explanation :-
      http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/sjogrensyndrome1.shtml

  11. QUESTION:
    what is a natural suppliment to take for Sjogrens syndrome?

    • ANSWER:
      try these

      http://health.yahoo.com/vision-living/sjogren-s-syndrome-home-treatment/healthwise--aa152044.html

      https://healthlibrary.epnet.com/GetContent.aspx?token=70ff5260-81bd-4de1-9998-14fc98aa9133&chunkiid=38401

  12. QUESTION:
    Can i receive ssi disability with sjogrens disease?

    • ANSWER:
      That depends on how seriously your Sjögren's affects you. The big question is whether you are able to work despite your Sjögren's or whether your Sjögren's makes you unable to work. SSI is for people who are unable to work because of their disability. It's not for people who have disabilities and are still able to work.

      If you're unable to work, then I think you should apply for SSI. It's not easy to get approved for SSI though. It can take a long time and they reject most applicants the first time they apply, but eventually they approve those who genuinely qualify.

      You can find more information on the SSA website: http://www.ssa.gov/pgm/disability.htm

  13. QUESTION:
    Can anyone share your symptoms of Sjogrens?
    My dr wants me to get some additional tests for this, I need to visit a few specialists. I am just wondering what symptoms you have, how they come and go, and if they compare to me.

    (Mine include swollen ears, pink eye like irritation, dry mouth, chap lips, & fatigue that comes close to every other every other month)

    Thanks
    I would like personal experiences & symptoms. Ive read it all online, but Im not sure if that compares to me (for ex: how severe must dry mouth be, how severe is the facial swelling).

    • ANSWER:
      The symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome...

      Dry eyes
      Dry mouth
      Dental cavities
      Fatigue
      Enlarged parotid glands — one particular set of your salivary glands, located behind your jaw and in front of your ears
      Difficulty swallowing or chewing
      Change in sense of taste
      Hoarseness
      Oral yeast infections, such as candidiasis
      Skin rashes or dry skin
      Vaginal dryness
      Dry cough that doesn't produce sputum
      Joint pain, swelling and stiffness

      Sjogren's syndrome that results from a rheumatic condition is classified as secondary Sjogren's syndrome. Primary Sjogren's syndrome occurs by itself.

      The signs and symptoms are similar to those caused by other diseases and can vary from person to person.

  14. QUESTION:
    I have sjogrens can't find anyone with it.Does the dry eyes ever get better at times?Thanks so much?
    Not alot of people on pei know about this syndrome.Would love to chat with someone??Trying to learn all I can.

    • ANSWER:
      Check out this website http://www.sjogrens.org/home/about-sjogrens-syndrome

  15. QUESTION:
    Is Sjogrens a really serious illness?
    Is it something I should really worry about. Just recently diagnosed 3 months ago. My doctors give me the impression that its not a big deal. I don't have any major symptoms at the moment besides dry eyes and occasional joint pain. I'm not taking an prescribed medicine just advil for the joint pain. Currently debating on whether I should continue medical insurance. I'm paying it myself and its becoming a little pricey....Any advice would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!
    I'm only 26

    • ANSWER:
      Sjogrens is a part of all mixed connective tissue disorders. My daughter has Sjogrens syndrome along with other disorders. You should definitely keep your health insurance as you will need to see your Dr. or rhuematologist off and on depending upon your symptoms and blood work. best of luck, take care

  16. QUESTION:
    sjogrens disease looking for anyone who can offer me some insite to this awful problem?
    hi i have fibro and was just dx with sjogrens i no a little bit about it but not much what i do no is i have had this 6 yrs i no of and have had the plugs put in used eye drops used ristatious and nothing helps i am in constant pain and well anyone who has it knows what i mean anything anyone can offer me...at all please? thanks, LaNay from michigan

    • ANSWER:

  17. QUESTION:
    i would like to know the average lifespan of patients with sjogrens syndrome ?

    • ANSWER:
      There are two categories of Sjogren's Syndrome (SS). It can be localized, affecting mainly the eyes and/or the mouth. Or, it can be systemic, and occur in conjunction with connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or scleroderma.

      The dry eyes cause irritation, and feelings of grittiness and, sometimes, burning. The eyelids may stick together and a patient may not be able to tolerate strong sunlight. The dry mouth results in a burning sensation in the mouth or throat; the voice may be hoarse or weak; food can be difficult to swallow because it sticks to the tissues; the salivary glands may become enlarged and painful. Patients frequently experience a "hurt all over" sensation, as if they have been battered, and feel continually exhausted.

      Sjogren's is very treatable. Please take a look at the article below - I think it will answer your questions : )

      http://health.ivillage.com/autoimmune/ausjogren/0,,4qh5,00.html

  18. QUESTION:
    Has anyone heard of SJOGRENS syndrome?
    I am having trouble with my saliva gland, it swells up when I eat hard foods and I have a dry and burning mouth.

    • ANSWER:
      it is an auto-immune condition which is often associated with other conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis. Both saliva and tear production is reduced.

  19. QUESTION:
    what alternative medicine can be taken for sjogrens syndrome.?
    she has the dry mouth,eyes, and sore joints which she cant cope with. is there any alternative medicine or anything else she can do for the painful joints

    • ANSWER:
      No need to have alternative medicine because this is nerves problem . What is your age ?how ever,mix one table-spone pure honey in one litter of fresh water and take it according to your need.Go early on bed for sleep and get-up early in morning for excercise before the sun arose.Further information will be available at zhhmd4u@yahoo.com on scontect with me. Dont waist your time here and there.

  20. QUESTION:
    please has anyone anything to suggest for sjogrens syndrome?
    I am under a rhumertologist, and also on warfarin so need to be very careful taking any new medication as lots of things including herbal all interact with warfarin. I am lacking saliva and have treid all the things available that I can try, but none work. I drink heaps of water, but my mouth dries out immediately after drinking. Looking for a diet with moist foods, NO dairy, wheat, soya, rice, oils, sugarless chewing gum doesnt help me.
    I have tried the artificial products that have been suggested and find these dont help me, I dry out faster, and they only last for about 1 sec so its not worth using them thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      There are products out there such as artificial saliva, products which you can suck on which make your mouth produce saliva, and even eye drops which, taken orally, force your salivary glands to produce more saliva. (Believe me, they really do work!) Other than that sucking on Sweetarts works temporarily, too. It's a hard condition to treat!!!

  21. QUESTION:
    Whats wrong with me? Any medical ideas? Sjogrens?
    I have numerous symptoms which may/not be related but they make everyday life a chore. Can anyone tell me if they think these are related or if it sound slike i might have sjogrens?
    I need lots sleep 10-11 hrs at night and a nap afternoon, itchy sore red eyes, dry nose and mouth, dry cough, spitting up flem, vaginal dryness, some lethargy, problems with concentration, dry patches on arms, regular sinus problems and sore throats, sinus headaches, regular thrush, regular conjunctivitis and regular bleeding gums and mouth ulcers. I also ahve hayfever and lost allergies.
    My GP says i dont have astma but i take ventolin inhalers and budesonide which stop my dry cough and the flem and a nasal steroid for my nose but as soon as i stop taking them they come back. I take antihistamines most days too.
    Please help if anyone has any ideas much appreciaed as im not even really sure where to start with what to say to dr...

    • ANSWER:
      Forget the miracle crap, hon, listed above... just a good way to separate you from your money.

      Before seeing your next doc, do some investigation of your own. Are your sinus problems related to the season, pollens, etc.?? That you have thrush (I'm assuming in your mouth) indicates that your immune system isn't working properly.

      Begin with diet... lots of people have allergies that show up in the weirdest ways. Most allergists suggest that you eliminate a diet problem with starting from scratch... a chore to be sure.
      Begin with nothing but lamb and whole grain rice for a week (as well, be sure that there are not things in your environment that are setting things off)

      Then add one thing to that every three days --- of course keep a diary.

      Many people have allergies to strawberries, melons, pork to name a few.... wheat, dairy products peanuts are all big ones as well. (You may be taking medicines that knock down one thing, only to cause something else to occur...)

      If you add too many things too quickly, you may not be able to pin point your exact problem(s).

      So your investigation can start from exposure to a few things, and increase to find your problem, as suggested above or you can stay where your are with your present exposures, and add things that help most people....

      Several things for sure you ought to do... eliminate white things from your diet... sugar, corn sweeteners which are in most soft drinks, white flower, white bread, cakes, pies, anything, really, that is man made. Buy the book by Andrew Weil, MD called The Anti-inflammatory Diet... He's no nut case, Harvard trained, and well thought of in the field. It may be that you have genetic markers for Shoengrin's or other conditions that you may indeed be able to control by diet. Many physicians are now recommending that you use a probiotic...expensive, but at least over the counter... Align is one, and Culturelle is another... capsules that contain good bacteria that you need for proper digestion. Most docs as well suggest that you eliminate all saturated fats from your diet, eat more veggies that you steam, and fruits. Use olive oil on your salids, not a salad dressing... Eggs are a good source of fatss, and protein if you have no allergy to them.... do some research to see if milk products are setting you off, and be sure your elimination is daily --- stool softeners, magnesium oxide, with lots of water... (2-3 tabs several times per day with lots of water). Steak, fatty meats, fried things, fast foods etc, ought to be eliminated. You can lower your cholesteral by 30 point in less than two months if your breakfast is 1/4 c boiled Scottish oats (steel cut oats) with some milk (test first) blue berries, walnuts, ground flax seed meal (also see if you have a nut allergy before you begin using this food as well)

      You didn't tell me your age,weight, level of activity, what kind of job you do, what your exposures are to plant materials, or household chemicals, or much else, so I'm a bit stranded. Write if you have questions.

  22. QUESTION:
    What are the symptoms of Sjogrens Disease???

    • ANSWER:
      General Discussion

      Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by scaling skin (ichthyosis), mental retardation, speech abnormalities, and spasticity. Affected infants develop various degrees of reddened skin with fine scales soon after birth. After infancy, the skin loses its redness and dark scales often appear on the neck and under the arms. Additionally, larger plate-like thick scales may develop on the lower legs. Developmental delay, speech abnormalities and seizures may accompany skin symptoms. Spasticity in the legs typically impairs motor ability and walking. Many children with this disorder have glistening white dots or degeneration of the pigment in the retina of the eye.

  23. QUESTION:
    i have sjogrens syndrome an autoimmune disease and would like to know how and why it damages the brain?
    i read on the internet that apart from damage to other organs it affects the brain

    • ANSWER:
      Take a look at the links they may help:

      http://www.sjogrens.org/syndrome/

      http://www.sjogrensworld.org/brain_fog.htm

      http://www.4woman.gov/faq/autoimmune.htm

  24. QUESTION:
    Can Sarcoidosis or Sjogrens syndrome ?
    I have dry eye,Dry mouth,dry nose,muscle pain, Joint pain, diabeties type-II, hypothyroidism. So doctor checked ANA- positive, ds-DNA- negative, SSA&SSB-negative, HIV-negative, aTPO-highly positive.

    • ANSWER:
      Well,
      it isn't Sjogren's sydnrome becuase your SSa & SSb are negative.
      SLE is out of the question becuase the ds-DNA is negative.
      Sarcoidosis does have a positive ANA, but confermation would be a SCL-70 antibody test
      Polymyositis and dermomyositis also has a positive ANA and a positive Jo antibody.
      the ATPO is conferming the hypothyroidism

      so I would guess that it is more sarcoidosis from your symptoms. good luck

  25. QUESTION:
    sjogrens syndrome. How it affects the gastro system?
    involvement in stomach, pancreas and related area symptoms

    • ANSWER:
      Inflammation in the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and liver can cause problems like painful swallowing, heartburn, abdominal pain and swelling, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and weight loss. It can also cause hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) and cirrhosis (hardening of the liver). Sjögren's is closely linked to a liver disease called primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which causes itching, fatigue, and, eventually, cirrhosis. Many patients with PBC have Sjögren's.

      Treatment varies, depending on the problem, but may include pain medicine, anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, and immunosuppressants.

  26. QUESTION:
    i have sjogrens snydrome which means my immune system is destroying my saliva glands?
    I have to visit my dentist every 3 months, and despite my efforts to clean my teeth the best I can, my teeth always need work doing every time I go due to lack of saliva. I have tried chewing gum, and it makes it worse. I have tried artificial saliva and that doesnt help either. Anyone have any other suggestions? no cure for this problem.

    • ANSWER:
      Biotene has many great products, they have a gel that a lot of people like more than the spray. Also be sure you get enough fluoride on the teeth. Drink a lot of water. Another 'newer' product is Xylitol. It is a natural sweetener that is used in gums and mints. It doesn't allow bacteria to stick to the teeth as easily, thus helping in reducing cavities. If you go to a health food store you can get Spry products, a great one is their toothpaste. They also have mints and gum for sale. Using these regularly should help. Be sure to research for even more information, because this is not a rare problem and I am sure there is a lot of info out there!! Good Luck. Did you ask your hygienist for more information? If she is truly a great hygienist she should have all the information available for you, or be able to get it for you!

  27. QUESTION:
    can a person suffering from sarcodisis with secondary sjogrens syndrom continue her matrimonial relations?
    -will it effect otherwise any of the partners.
    -the patient is using methotrexate for treatment.
    -also using omnocartile.

    • ANSWER:
      yes don't worry

  28. QUESTION:
    Sjogrens syndrome pain help?
    Okay so my mom had just found out she has sjogrens and she can't find meds that help her with pain joints and her reflexs it Hirt when she eats..if looked online about this Sydrome and j know medical weed helps with a lot of things would it be okay for her to ask her doctor about it and is there any nurses or anybody that knows if you even can smoke weed if you have sjogrens

    • ANSWER:
      I think it would be ok to ask her doctor about it. Her doctor would know if it was a good option. It does help with many kinds of chronic pain. Read here about Sjogrens syndrome.

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sjogrens-syndrome/DS00147

  29. QUESTION:
    Does Sjogrens syndrome cause muscle pain?

    • ANSWER:
      maria - YES, with Sjögren’s Syndrome you may suffer from fatigue, which can be severe enough to interfere with your lifestyle. You may have stiffness or swelling of the small joints of your hands (arthritis) and other joints. Joint pain and stiffness are typically worse in the morning and improve within one to two hours. Muscle pain or weakness can occur, leading to difficulty arising from a chair or lifting your arms over your head. You could experience white or blue color changes at the tips of your fingers during cold exposure (Raynaud’s phenomenon).

  30. QUESTION:
    What is Sjogrens Syndrom ?

    • ANSWER:
      It is a lack of natural lubricant in mucosal tissue, eg saliva, tears, vaginal lubricant. The saliva problem is helped by chewing gum, you can get eye drops to correct the dry-eye problem, and water-based personal lubricant to help with vaginal dryness. It's unfortunate, but not life threatening!

  31. QUESTION:
    Phentermine and Sjogrens?
    What happens if you have Sjogrens and you take phentermine? I'm not sure I have Sjogrens - just curious...

    • ANSWER:
      probably nothing, just alittle more energy. Ask your pharmacist, Phentermine does cause dryness as does Sjorgens

  32. QUESTION:
    Does anyone have a teenage child who's been diagnosed with Sjogrens Syndrome? What are the main symptoms?
    My 17 yr. old daughter got the diagnosis when she was 15, and we went through a horrible 6 months. I think she's in a remission, but another doctor said she doesn't have it? What is your experience with this disease? Symptoms? Remissions? Just anything you can tell me! I understand this is fairly rare in children, and there's not enough data to track it in children / teenagers! I'm wondering if she really has it, or if it's just going to burst back into her life again unexpectedly! It was total misery - she had to be on homebound school as it affected her joints so bad, she could barely walk!! Migraines, blackouts, couldn't swallow well, no taste to food anymore, reflux, heart palpitations, paranoia, dry eyes, mouth, red patches over eyelids, ice-cold feet and legs, felt like feet were disconnected from her body, sharp shooting pains anywhere, including abdomen, blurry and 10 second losses of vision, feet went numb, memory went bad and is still not good. Much more! Help?!!

    • ANSWER:
      Hi, I am really sorry for your distress, I hope your daughter is doing better now. In answer to your question, Sjogren's Synd. is a disorder where ther is destruction of the exocrine glands which will cause mucosal and conjunctival dryness. (in your eyes) To diagnose it, the doctor will need to see dry eyes, a dry mouth, and white cell infiltration in the salivary glands(seen under microscope). There are 4 different types that a person can get. It is more common in women, but in contrast to your daughter, it is commonly seen in women from the ages of 40 to 50 years old. Common symptoms, othere than the ones i have written are, enlarged parotid gland, renal problems, like, smoky colored urine, they may have breathing difficulties, and they may a variety of other symptoms due to vasculits, which can include, abnormal bruising, fever, weight loss, inability to eat, cough, hypertension, etc...and a feeling of tightness or fullness in the neck. I hope this helps you out. it's just a brief answer to your question. Good luck!

  33. QUESTION:
    Can osteoarthritis affect several joints at the same time?
    I have arthritis on my fingers/thumbs, Knees, lower back, neck. It's kind of symmetrical on most joints. Had blood tests for RA and Gout and the results were negative. Over the last few months i developed Sjogrens syndrome but was told this is not related to the arthritis because osteoarthritis doesn't cause this problem.
    Any info on this subject would be very much appreciated.

    • ANSWER:

  34. QUESTION:
    does this sound like sjogrens?
    i think i have sjogrens but tested negative for antibodies and positive on a shirmirs test (dry eye test) with a zero. how many have sjogrens and tested negative? my doc said since i tested negative for antibodies we shouldnt do further testing he said my other symptoms dont sound like sjs here they are
    stomach pain inflamation on endoscopy
    extreme sensitivity to light very painful
    shooting pain in arms legs and head
    high wbc count 12,000-16,000
    high c-reactive protein 9-18.88
    low grade fevers
    extreme fatigue unable to be productive through the day
    mild pain in my wrists and ankles
    lots of back and spinal pain
    mildly dry mouth mostly in the mornings

    does anyone with sjs relate or does it sound like something else? been tested for ms and lots of other things too everything negative

    is their any doc in california that specializes in sjogrens

    any advice is helpful
    thanks

    • ANSWER:
      I'm assuming you've been tested for lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus) and thyroid disease, which can both accompany Sjogren's syndrome. And some patients with fibromyalgia report Sjogren's symptoms.

      C-reactive protein is typically elevated in lupus, but lupus patients usually have low WBCs rather than high ones. However, if there is an infection along with the lupus, this can elevate the WBCs.

      If you haven't explored the above three possibilities, read more at
      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000435.htm
      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/fibromyalgia.html
      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/thyroiddiseases.html

      I was evaluated for rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and lupus, and my rheumatologist decided I have fibromyalgia. Often a diagnosis of fibromyalgia is made after everything else turns up negative.

      Do not give up. It took over 2 years of testing and different doctors for my diagnosis. There is nothing worse than being in pain and being told, "But there's nothing wrong!" by a physician.

  35. QUESTION:
    why is gluten free foods so dry, hard and tasteless?
    I have no saliva due to an autoimmune disease called sjogrens syndrome, which means my immune system is destroying my saliva glands. I find gluten free foods so dry, tasteless and not nutritional.

    • ANSWER:
      Do you also have Celiac? Often secondary autoimmune diseases such as sjogrens, get better (not healed but the symptoms ease) on the gluten free diet.

      That being said, I have tried MANY GF foods (I have Celiac) and here's my faves and some sites that will help:

      Pamela's Prodcuts (cookies, mixes, baking stuff)
      Glutino (pizza, cereals, bars, cookies)
      Kinnikinnick (great pastries, breads, etc.)
      Tinkyada pastas
      Bobs Red Mill flours

      www.csaceliacs.org
      www.celiac.org
      www.celiac.com
      www.glutenfree.com
      www.glutensolutions.com
      www.amazon.com
      www.kinnikinnick.com

  36. QUESTION:
    Does autoimmune disorders such as RA or etc. have a roll in children born with Autism?
    I have Sjogrens and RA. Alot of other mothers that I have spoken with have some sort of autoimmune disorder. My son is Autistic. Some of the other mother's has adimited to having
    some sort of weak immune system. Please let me know if you have the same thing. Desperate to
    help my child and all children with Autism.

    • ANSWER:
      My son has Autism and I am very healthy. Most of the parents of children/adults with ASD I know from school and support groups are pretty healthy, too. That is an interesting theory, though.

  37. QUESTION:
    im looking for a senible diet?
    I have no saliva so need a moist diet, with no dairy, wheat, soya, rice, or anything dry otherwise I choke. I have sjogrens syndrome which means my immune system is destroying my saliva glands.

    • ANSWER:
      I would say low fat and just watch your servings. Dieting is so hard I've struggled all of my life with it , just last week I joined a excercise class & it is the best thing I've ever done It makes you feel so much better, gives you lots of energy. why don't you give it a try along with a low fat diet.

  38. QUESTION:
    does anyone know anything about sjogrens syndrome?
    I have had fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome for 20+years..
    Now a Dr. tells me I have sjogrens.pronounced.(sho-grins)..I do have most of the symptons and am sicker than I have been in the past..I can no longer drive or go out by myself..now I have so much more going on in my body but my treatment hasn't been changed..I feel no one really understands..most of my days r spent in bed or a chair..Does anyone have any advice or know what I am going through?

    • ANSWER:
      Im sorry that this new thing has developed. Its just another thing that isn't going right. A Great Place to go is WebMD.com they have message bords just for this kind of reason and or case. Its free and better then here at yahoo. They will have most of the answers that you are looking for and have people there that yuo can talk to, vent, or find comfert in their words. Please take a look you may like.

      With Hope and Kind Words
      Darcey

  39. QUESTION:
    Can I get a handicap parking placard for Primary Biliary cirrhosis?
    I have just been diagnosed with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis as well as Sjogrens Syndrome. I was wondering if anyone knows if it is possible to obtain a handicap parking placard in the state of California for these issues?

    • ANSWER:
      Handicapped parking is for people that cannot walk very far and needs closer to the entrance or for someone in a wheelchair that needs the extra room for getting in and out of a vehicle.

      I had primary biliary cirrhosis and never used handicapped parking until AFTER I received my transplant. There should not be any reason you need handicapped parking with PBC since it does not take away your ability to walk or even make you out of breathe.

      I had to use handicapped parking for a few months after my transplant since it took me a long time to get back on my feet again. I don't know what Sjogrens Syndrome is so I don't know if that limits you in some way or not.

      I guess the answer to your question is to ask yourself, "Can I walk to the store without a problem?" If the answer is yes, then you don't need handicapped parking even though I know you probably would like to have one of those placards just for the convenience of easy parking. Leave it for the people that really need it if you can.

  40. QUESTION:
    How much trust should we place on doctors?
    I have a pain primarely on right lung. Every now and thenI feel it on my left lung. Sometimes it is very sharp, sometimes it is dull. It hurts mostly when it gets cold, when I breathe in/out, etc. After oh so many blood tests, x-rays, etc., out of nowhere I am told I could have Lupus, then I am told it looks more like Sjogrens syndrome. I am placed on meds that made me feel sicker than I was. And could have horrible effects. I took my self off the meds, started taking herbal meds and beta glucans 1, 3 to help my immune system. No relief on my lungs, tests still continue. Am I alone, or does anyone ever question their doctors? And if you do, do you think Eastern Medicine is a better way to go?

    • ANSWER:
      I'm going through the same thing with my son, over a year and still no clue as to what's happening. Western doctors seem more interested in prescribing something for the symptoms, not treating the body as a whole. Eastern medicine is our next step and it's worth considering. I've been to an Eastern doctor and it was well worth the experience. Eastern medicine treats the whole body not just the symptoms. Good Luck.

  41. QUESTION:
    Does anyone have Sjogrens Syndrome?

    It is an Auto-immune disease, the immune system is attacking my salivery glands, that means no saliva so your teeth get cavities and other problems. My eyes feel like there is sand in them all the time and my skin is so dry. I cough most night so I have to get up, even though I drink water all through the night. I also have Lupus but the SS is bugging me more right now.

    • ANSWER:
      yes and it sucks.

      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/sjogrenssyndrome.html

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sjogrens-syndrome/DS00147

      http://www.lupus.org/education/brochures/sjogren.html

      When my SS is acting up I have to sleep with a water bottle in bed so I can wet my mouth with sips of water as I try to sleep. Nasal irrigation can help keep your sinuses moist. Regular eye drop use is essential.

      The severity of symptoms comes and goes. See a good rheumatologist if you aren't already. Make sure you don't also have SLE form of lupus. good luck

  42. QUESTION:
    sjogrens and being sick also with raynauds?

    • ANSWER:
      Raynaud's phenomenon is a condition resulting from poor circulation in the extremities (i.e., fingers and toes). In a person with Raynaud's phenomenon, when his or her skin is exposed to cold or the person becomes emotionally upset, the blood vessels under the skin tighten and the blood flow slows. This is called vasospasm. Hands and feet have fewer large blood vessels and, therefore, when a vasospasm occurs, it is harder for the blood to keep flowing and these areas may turn blue because less oxygen is reaching the skin. The skin will also feel cold because less blood is reaching the skin to keep it warm. While attacks of vasospasm may last from minutes to hours, only rarely do they cause severe tissue damage.

      Raynaud's phenomenon is named after the French doctor Maurice Raynaud, who first described the condition in the mid-1800s. The condition is also known as Raynaud's syndrome or Raynaud's disease.

  43. QUESTION:
    At 53 yrs I suddenly have a constant pain, eye infections, Sjogrens, drs can't put it all together.?
    Pain is in my left temple to over the left eye and is sometimes worse than others. My eyes are infected, not conjunctivitus, just blood red. After antibiotics they clear up for a couple days. Cat scan of the head was clear. Had a bladder e-coli infection that went away after antibiotics. Rheumatologist diagnosed Sjogrens. I'm seeing an Opthamologist for the eyes. Primary dr has me on a beta blocker for the head pain that does not work. Any ideas that could pull this all together??

    • ANSWER:
      If Rheumatologist has diagnosed Sjogrens, then you should be getting whatever treatment is available for this auto-immune disorder. Also could you have polymyalgia. That can cause the pain in the temple area. You should see Rheumatologist again and ask about this. Sometimes it is treated w/course of prednisone, but since it is a steroid, know that there can be side effects. Talk w/Rheumatologist about this and see if more tests need to be run and what treatments can be given.

  44. QUESTION:
    what would someone use if they were Dx with Sjogrens D. and manifested with arthritis and severe dry skin?

    • ANSWER:
      Very high doses of Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oils), a quality multi-vitamin/mineral supplement, and have a thorough evaluation of gut function (especially looking for intestinal dysbiosis, and/or intestinal hyper-permeability, and/or Celiac Disease).

      Best wishes and good luck.

  45. QUESTION:
    any cure for sjogrens syndrome?

    • ANSWER:
      The symptoms of Sjogrens can be treated but the syndrome itself cannot be treated.

      Some of the most common symptoms of sjogren's syndomre are: dry eyes, eye irritation, eye burning; eyelids sticking together, dry mouth; hoarse or weak voice; difficulty in swallowing food; enlarged, painful salivary glands.

  46. QUESTION:
    Can shriveled fingertips and toes be caused by an autoimmune disease? ?
    I have RA ,Sjogrens and Raynauds Disease which is a precursor to sclerderma. The skin on my cuticles is hard and tough and fingers and toes are puckered and shriveled.

    • ANSWER:
      The hardening symptom you are encountering can be related to those autoimmune diseases you mentioned. This may due to the excessive deposits of collagen in the skin. However, the condition also causes tightness of the skin, I'm thinking that the shriveled appearance may be secondary to the ulcerations associated with Raynaud's disease (if ever you do have skin ulcerations).

  47. QUESTION:
    who discovered sjogrens syndrome?

    • ANSWER:
      Henrik Sjögren (1899-1986)

  48. QUESTION:
    The glycerin at the drug store says for external use only. Can I use it to make dry mouth spray?
    Sjogrens, RA, and osteoarthritis person. still happy and moving!

    • ANSWER:
      At the drug store the glycerin should be able to be used in the mouth....
      There is a new product called Salese that is a long lasting lozenge, just saw it at convention and looks promising....lasts for up to 4 hours! Much better that what is on the market now, and not a drug...you might want to try it....

      http://www.nuvorainc.com/saleve.php

  49. QUESTION:
    Is 1320mg of Naproxen Sodium to much in a 24 hour time frame?
    I am 22 and have Sjogrens syndrome which is an autoimmune disease. I take 3 Aleve in the morning and 3 at night. I also never have time to eat in the morning so I dont take it with food, is it ok to take 1320mg in a 24 hour period and without food in the morning

    • ANSWER:
      your not supposed to take that much. i think the bottle says not to take more than 3 pills in 24 hours. its because its bad for your kidneys and can cause ulcers. i mean ive taken that much before and it didnt hurt me but taking it everyday like that cant be good for you. go to your doctor.

  50. QUESTION:
    Sjogrens Syndrome. symptoms of ones with it....not google please?

    did it appear mid age? young age?
    can you wear contacts with it? someone mentioned this in regards to dryness of the vagina also....I sip on liquids all day long, dry eyes but can wear a contact

    • ANSWER:
      I have this syndrome and I get severe dry mouth and dry eyes. I drink a great deal of water and I have to use mints when I'm doing of lot of talking to keep my mouth moist. I use eye drops frequently during the day and an eye lubricant at nighttime .

      I hope this helps.


Rhumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory form of arthritis, affecting more than 2 million Americans. It is a chronic, systemic, progressive autoimmune process for which there is no cure, currently. However, there are medications available that can put this disease into remission.

Prior to treating rheumatoid arthritis, it is important than any patient suspected of having the disease undergo a thorough and complete examination. This will include an in-depth history, careful physical examination, laboratory testing, and imaging procedures such as x-ray, diagnostic ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

While rheumatoid arthritis can affect many internal organ systems such as the eyes, lungs, and heart, its symptoms can be magnified by other conditions.

That is why it is so important that thorough laboratory testing be done. Many of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis such as generalized aches and pains in the joints and muscles, fatigue, listlessness, and low grade fever can be due to other conditions.

Anemia, which is frequent in patients with active RA, is a common cause of fatigue.

For instance, it is not uncommon for patients to have an overlap of their rheumatoid arthritis with systemic lupus erythematosus. This condition is referred to as "rupus."
Also, inflammatory muscle diseases such as polymyositis can often present with joint inflammation along with weakness.

Another organ system dysfunction that is often neglected or overlooked is thyroid disease.

There is an increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. When thyroid inflammation occurs, the end result can be hypothyroidism- an underactive thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is responsible for many metabolic functions in the body. When it fails to work properly, symptoms such as cold intolerance, fatigue, lethargy, weight gain, muscle and joint aches and pains can often occur.

Hypothyroidism is significantly more common in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than in women in general due to the increased association of these two conditions.

A recent study has demonstrated that this coexistence further aggravates the known increased risk for cardiovascular disease occurring in rheumatoid arthritis patients. (Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:229-232)

Dutch researchers at the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam studied 358 RA patients, 236 of whom were women. All were taking part in an ongoing cardiovascular study.

Clinical hypothyroidism was seen in none of the men and 16 of the studied women (6.8%) compared to 2.7% in the general Dutch population. Six of the women had subclinical- meaning unapparent on physical examination- hypothyroidism as did 4 of the men.

The women with clinical hypothyroidism also had significantly more cardiovascular disease than did RA patients with normal thyroid function (37.5% versus 13.0%).

After adjustment for other factors, the odds ratio- the increased risk- was 4.6. In other words, women with RA and hypothyroidism were 4.6 times more likely to have significant cardiovascular disease than women with RA who didn't have hypothyroidism.

The authors concluded that "clinical hypothyroidism accelerates the already enhanced cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis and that physicians should consider screening for thyroid disorders in rheumatoid arthritis patients."

Author's note: In our clinic, we routinely screen arthritis patients for coexistent thyroid disease. We have found that all too often, unsuspected hypo- or hyperthyroidism is present and once this condition is treated, many of the other symptoms improve as well.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Rhumatoid Arthritis?
    I think I spelled that right.. Anyway, my grandmother has Rhumatoid Arthritis, and it's so bad she can't get out of bed.. I know prayer is the best answer, and we're doing that right now.. But in the meantime, anyone have any good ideas to take away the pain?
    Remember guys, she can't get out of bed.. How does she 'walk in a pool' when she can't get out of bed or in a car? And with the pain, it's very hard to sleep.

    • ANSWER:
      Is she in physical therapy? I work in physical therapy and we see quite a few patients with rhumatoid arthritis. We have them do different types of exercises such as muscle strengthining, gripping and stretching exercises. There are very simple exercies for people who are limited physically. We also have pool activities which the patients find really soothing. We have a whole program just for people with symptoms from arthritis. It doesn't cure the disease of course but it really helps with pain management. It is extremely important that she gets a lot of rest also.I would try checking out some local physical therapy clinics to see if they have any programs specifically for those with rhumatoid arthritis. Or, if she is unable to go to a clinic a lot of clinics provide home rehab. For temporary relief at home, try icing the achey area for fifteen minutes and then applying heat for fifteen minutes....alternating for as long as needed. That kind of gets the muscles a little more relaxed and soothes pain. Hope that little bit of information might help! I'm sure it's so hard to see her in pain.

  2. QUESTION:
    How do I get tested for Rhumatoid arthritis?
    Arthritis runs in my Mother's side of the family. I just turned 30 years old & I've been noticing I have pretty severe aches & pains throughout my body from time to time. The pains & aches will not stay in one spot though. One month my ankle will be aching then the next it would be my hip area. My aunt (my Mother's sister) was diagnosed with Rhumatoid Arthritis about 4 years ago, so I know what it can do but how do I know if that might be what I am experiencing?

    • ANSWER:
      Omega3 helps preventing arthritis.

      Check this info:

      "One of the benefits of fish oil is the effect that it has on arthritis. Arthritis can be a painful and debilitating condition and finding effective treatments for the condition has been like looking for a needle in a haystack.

      Thankfully, Omega 3 seems to be having a positive effect on treating the pain, inflammation and stiffness of the arthritis condition. "

      And now my gift to you (free Omega3 bottle): http://thelowcostsite.com/promotions/link.php?id=free_omega3

      I hope it helps

  3. QUESTION:
    wt is effect of steroids on pregnancy in a female suffering chronic rhumatoid arthritis and has been receiving?
    wt is effect of steroids on pregnancy in a female suffering chronic rhumatoid arthritis and has been receiving PREDNISONE tablets. what shpuld she do now ?

    • ANSWER:

  4. QUESTION:
    Is wrist pain a sign of rhumatoid arthritis?
    I have had wrist pain off and on for over a year and just lately I have noticed my other wrist is starting to become sore also. Does anyone have rhumatoid arthritis or know the symptoms. I can still move my wrist but they are sore if I push them back to much.

    • ANSWER:
      There are many different reasons that your wrists may be hurting. It could be a repetitive stress syndrome like carpal tunnel, or tendinitis, or osteo arthritis, or any other number of things. Go to a wrist specialist, they will take X-Rays, and your history and decide where to go from there.

      Good luck,
      c-ya

  5. QUESTION:
    i have rhumatoid arthritis & have been told i should avoid certain foods. can anyone tell me where i can find?
    i have rhumatoid arthritis & have been told i should avoid certain foods. can anyone tell me where i can find info about this please?

    • ANSWER:
      Put in search.There is an official government health site. UK.

  6. QUESTION:
    Is there such a thing as the LAST stages of Rhumatoid Arthritis?
    I have a very good friend who has had this for quite a few years and has multiple joint replacements and has been ill off and on.Her immune system is so low she just got out of hospital last week and was told then that her body was in its final stages of the arthritis.Anyone have any info or going thru the same thing?

    • ANSWER:
      My understanding is that it is treatable but not curable. So if believe that there are "last stages" of cancer then I guess there could be "last stages" for Rhumatoid arthritis. I have it and it normally dosn't bother me as much as it used to because I treated it when it was bad. Now I just have to watch it and take care of it if it flares up. I haven't had any replacements or illness from it so obviously mine was a lot more mild but to answer your question I don't believe there are any "last stages."

  7. QUESTION:
    How has Remicade infusion helped your Rhumatoid arthritis?
    I will be starting Remicade infusion this week and am a little scared since reading of all the side effects and how dangerous this drug is. Can anyone tell me their experiences with Remicade. I have psoriatic arthritis which is almost the same as (RA). I'm 67 yrs old and am in good health otherwise.

    • ANSWER:
      I work with a Rheumatologist and we infuse Remicade in the office. The most signigicant thing is having an allergic reaction. We typically give these people IV SoluMedrol and Benedryl. Otherwise,you must be very careful with infections. If you have a UTI, Sinus infection or even a bad cut, the Remicade given shortly there after can cause major infections. Typically we use the rule of not getting Remicade for two weeks after the end of antibiotics.

      This is a very good drug and I have seen it practically cause miracles in patients.

      I hope the side effects done scare you and you give it a try. Please let me know how it goes for you!!

      Good Luck

  8. QUESTION:
    i want to know about the range of treatments available for rhumatoid arthritis?
    my wife(28) is on medication of a combination of medicines
    methotraxte,hydro chloroquine,saazo and other supportive pills
    for the last 3 years. she has not been cured of her pains but the pain is definitely under control.is this the best treatment?

    • ANSWER:
      No, definitely not. Antibiotics should be added to anti-inflammatory and pain medications.

      I have had seronegative rheumatoid arthritis for almost 27 years. The telling signs of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis are the following:
      - Joint pain in the feet (or cracking ankles) in the early 20's;
      - Fatigue;
      - Joint deformities of the fingers, a specific sign of rheumatoid arthritis;
      - Negative or low level of Rheumatoid factor;
      - X-Rays showing bone erosion, a consequence of rheumatoid arthritis;
      - Generalized arthritis, involving the whole body;
      - Elevated levels of C-Reactive protein and Sedimentation rate.

      NSAIDs like Voltaren, COX-2 inhibitors like Celebrex, acetaminophen like Tylenol, and codeine are all used to control inflammation and relieve the pain of arthritis.

      Regular exercise like walking, biking and swimming are also helpful for most patients. Make sure that your wife is not overweight as carrying too much weight can only increase the pain of arthritis.

      Your wife should consult an Orthopaedist who will order blood tests, joint scans and X-Rays to better diagnose the type of arthritis from which she suffers.

      The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (http://www.aaos.org) maintains a public online directory where you can find the address and phone number of orthopaedists who belong to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Orthopaedists are listed by geographic location and family name, inside the USA and in most countries.

      The membership directory of the AAOS is located at:

      http://www6.aaos.org/about/public/members.cfm

      Lyme disease could be a possibility. Ask the doctor to test your wife for the bacteria causing Lyme disease.

      Are there any other cases of arthritis or rheumatic diseases among your wife's relatives? Chronic forms of arthritis are usually prevalent in families where a defective gene is passed on by parents to their children.

      There are a few hundred types of arthritis and rheumatic diseases. The good news is that science is progressing rapidly in its understanding of rheumatic diseases.

      Antibiotics are now used to achieve full remissions for at least 40%, if not 65% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For more info, please join our group at:

      http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/antibio

  9. QUESTION:
    How long does it take to reap the benefits from Omega3 Fish Oil in regards to Rhumatoid Arthritis?

    • ANSWER:
      I was on it for 3 years before I gave up on it. Other than my wallet I noticed no difference.

  10. QUESTION:
    has anyone heard of bee pollen helping rhumatoid arthritis?
    has anyone heard anything close to bee honey or something in that line helping rh?
    like to find something to help my mothers rh
    thanks to all who help!

    • ANSWER:
      Not specifically for RA, however I have heard of it helping with other conditions/syndromes. I also suffer with RA, there are some great medicines that will help you, but if you can find someone willing to do alternative medicines, good luck with that!

  11. QUESTION:
    i have had 2 tests for rhumatoid arthritis 1a year ago and one now both pos is that enuf to prove i have it?
    i have nodules on fingers and i ache a lot does it mean i have r.a?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes. When you have two blood tests that both show positive for the rheumatoid titer then it's definitely enough to show you have the disease. The nodules are another symptom. I also have this disease and it does go into remission for years at a time if you take care of yourself. Good luck and God Bless

  12. QUESTION:
    What % of DMSO should I use for rhumatoid arthritis?

    • ANSWER:
      HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT FOR ARTHRITIS without any side effects or complications of any sort, (Arthritis including Gout, Arthritis Deformans/Osteoarthritis and Rheumatism) :-

      Pain knee joints, worse by movements; better initial movements, continuous pain in joints, worse while rising from seat; pain in heels, worse by movements. Cassia Sophera 30X, 4 hourly

      Acute attack of gout of joints of the feet.Pain with bright red swelling Aconite Nap 200, 2 hourly

      Pain with inflammation, worse by movements. Bryonia Alba 200 or 1M, 6 hourly

      Complaints worse after rest and exposure to cold Rhus tox 200 or 1M, 4 hourly

      Complaints worse during menstruation; beginning at the time of menopause; more in hands and feet Caulophyllum 30X, 4 hourly

      When the origin of complaints is gonorrhoeal; worse during day time. Medorrhinum 1M. fortnightly (3 Doses)

      When the origin of complaints is tubercular Tuberculinum k, 1M fortnightly (3 Doses)

      Complaints of small joints with red or pale swelling; tenderness and shifting pains; worse by motion. Main remedy for gout during cold weather Colchicum 30X, 4 hourly

      When Rhus Tox cease to work; pain is worse in cold damp weather and better by movements Calcarea Carb 200 or 1M, 6 hourly (6 Doses)

      Nodosities in the joints with gastric complaints. At last nodules become painless (Rheumatoid Arthritis). Tongue whitish thickly coated Antim Crud 30X or 200, 6 hourly

      Complaints of feets and ankles; stiffness Drosera 200 fortnightly (3 Doses)

      Complaints of long bones; contraction of ligaments Causticum 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain worse at night; in wet weather; Rheumatism of large muscles Cimicifuga 30X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatism; worse in damp cold weather. Gout.Pain in limbs and hip joints Natrum Sulph 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain travels downwards affecting the large part of a limb and passes through quickly along course of nerve Kalmia Lat 30X or 200, 6 hourly

      Pains worse during rest, night and warmth, better by cold, open air and movements Pulsatilla 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain :- violent; bruised or as if sprained ; cannot bear touch, feels somebody coming near him may touch him and hit the affected part Arnica Montana 200, 4 hourly

      Gout of great toe and joints with swelling; soreness and drawing pain on stepping; worse in warmth, pressure and motion. Pain travels upwards; better cold compresses Ledum Pal 200, 4 hourly

      Gouty nodosities of joints; tearing pain and extremities and contraction of the muscles Guaiacum 30 4 hourly

      Chronic nodosities of joints; hands twisted, out of shape due to deposits of water of soda Ammonium Phos 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      Gouty complaints with offensive urine Acid Benzoic 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      When there is red sand in urine in gouty patients Lycopodium 30, 4 hourly

      Severe pain with enlargement of the joints; worse during rest and when storm approaches Rhododendron 200 or 1M, 10 min (3 Doses)

      Almost a specific for gout (to drain out uric acid and urates) Urtica Urens Q(Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8 -10 drops in hot water

      Arthritic deformans (chronic rheumatoid, particularly of fingers) Picric Acid 30X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatic pains or arthritis after checked diarrhoea Abrotanum 30 or 200 4 hourly (6 Doses)

      Specific for pain with numbness; Pain so severe patient says that he would prefer death than the pain Chamomilla 200 or 1M, 1/2 hourly (3 Doses)

      Pain appear diagonally as right arm and left leg with sensation of cold, numbness and tingling Agaricus Mus 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      In weak persons; burning pain with chilliness, feels better by heat, while eating, and worse in cold open air Capsicum 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Unbearable pain; rigidity and stiffness. Superiority / inferiority complex Platina 1M, weekly (3 Doses)

      Pain flies like electric shock; due to exposurse of damp cold weather. Better by warmth and rest Phytolacca 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Rheumatic pain, worse after washing clothes, doing laundry work Sepia 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain in long bones; may be due to injury or rheumatism Ruta Grav 200, 6 hourly

      Pain worse on slightest touch specially after loss of vital fluids like excessive bleeding, diarrhoea, vomiting China Off 6X or 30, 3 hourly

      Pain in the small joints of extremities with swelling. Backache, worse in the morning before rising Staphysagria 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain heels; better by putting most of the weight on them Berberis Vulgaris Q (Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8 - 10 drops

      Stiffing pain in all parts of the body; worse by movement Stellaria Q(Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8-10 drops in warm water

      Rheumatic pain without swelling; pain joints; worse at night Iodium 30X, 4 hourly

      Osteo-arthritis of large joints with degeneration. Pain, swelling, stiffness and tenderness of joints; worse by motion (cracking joints) and cold ; better by warmth O.A.Nosode 1M, weekly (6 Doses)

      Chronic muscular rheumatism of back and neck. Intense pain along with sciatic nerve. Numbness alternates with pain Gnaphalium 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Muscular atrophy; rigidity and stiffness Strychninum 3X or 6X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatism accompained with skin ailments and itiching; cannot walk erect Sulphur 200, 10 min (3 Doses)

      Rheumatism of knee joint; with round worms Natrum Phos 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      For defective bony growth; better by warmth and worse by cold Calcarea Flour 12X or 30, 4 hourly

      *****************************
      Take the remedy which is similar to your symptoms.
      No side effects or complications if taken as directed, please do not exceed the given dosage and under any circumstances do not try to mix any remedies and avoid Chocolates, Mints, Coffee, Red Meat, Alcoholic and Carbonated drinks, Spicy Rich Food while taking any Homeopathic remedies, and keep the medicines away from direct sunlight, heat strong smells and perfumes and do not store them in the fridge.
      Curing without any side effects or Complications Thats the Beauty of Homeopathic Medicine (Cures Par Excellence)

      Take Care and God Bless you.

  13. QUESTION:
    I have fibromyalgia,asthma.rhumatoid arthritis and major depression disorder could I collect social security?
    All these effect my daily activities and it gets harder everyday to work and take care of my family also if i were able to this how long would it take

    • ANSWER:
      you might be able to collect SSD if you qualify. i would call SS and make a phone appointment to apply. questions like "how many quarters from working do you have?" are just one of the questions they will ask you. when you talk to the app. lady she will fill you in....go for it, nothing to loose.

  14. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know the difference between rhumatoid arthritis and plain arthritis? Are they the same ?

    • ANSWER:
      There is no such thing as just plain old arthritis. The particular symptoms involved make different arthritic conditions distinguishable from one another. Here they are:

      Osteoarthritis: Stiffness and pain on joint motion. Most often comes on gradually, over a period of years. Inflammation is not usually present at first, but in the later stages, inflammation, enlargement of the joint, and muscle contractures may occur. Joint mobility may be accompanied by a grating sensation.

      Rheumatoid arthritis: Joint stiffness upon awakening that lasts an hour or longer, swelling in specific finger or wrist joints, swelling in the soft tissue around the joints, swelling on both sides of the joint. Swelling can occur with or without pain, and can worsen progressively or remain the same for years before progressing.

      Spondyloarthropathies: A group of disorders that tend to affect the spine, causing pain, stiffness, inflammation, and changes in posture.

      Gout: Sudden onset of extreme pain and swelling of a large joint (usually a big toe, but occasionally other joints).

      Systemic lupus erythematosus: Fever, weakness, upper body and facial pain, joint pain.

      Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Joint stiffness, often in the knee, wrist, and hand. Can also involve kidneys, heart, lungs, and nervous system.

      Infectious arthritis: Body aches, chills, and fever, convulsion, dissiness, low blood pressure, pneumonia, shock, redness, swelling, tenderness, and throbbing pain in the affected joint. Pain someties spreads to other joints and worsens with movement.

      Kawasaki syndrome: Fever, joint pain, red rash on palms and soles, heart complications.

      I hope this explains the arthritis for you.

  15. QUESTION:
    can anyone tell me if siatica and rhumatoid arthritis can be connected,or one leads to the other .?
    i have suffered with siatica now found out i could have rhumatoid arthritis

    • ANSWER:
      Saitica is usually caused by discs pressing on the sciatic nerve. arthritis is more to do with joints, bones etc.
      i doubt there is a connection.

  16. QUESTION:
    how can rhumatoid arthritis and cancer in common?
    i know someone that was diagnosed with rhumatiod arthritis for 3 years and all along she had cancer all along now its untreatable

    • ANSWER:
      thats sad.. rheumatoid factor-the stuff they test for rheumatoid arthritis is not so specific to rheumatoid arthritis it also present on some other diseases such as cancer..

  17. QUESTION:
    My dad was just diagnosed with 3rd stage rhumatoid arthritis; how bad is this?

    • ANSWER:
      1. In the third stage, the inflamed cells release enzymes that may digest bone and cartilage, often causing the involved joint to lose its shape and alignment, more pain, and loss of movement.
      Because it is a chronic disease, RA continues indefinitely and may not go away. Frequent flares in disease activity can occur. RA is a systemic disease, which means it can affect other organs in the body. Early diagnosis and treatment of RA is critical if you want to continue living a productive lifestyle. Studies have shown that early aggressive treatment of RA can limit joint damage, which in turn limits loss of movement, decreased ability to work, higher medical costs and potential surgery.

      2. Progression to the third stage is characterized by fibrous ankylosis - fibrous invasion of the pannus and scar formation that occludes the joint space. Bone atrophy and misalignment cause visible deformities and disrupt the articulation of opposing bones, causing muscle atrophy and imbalance and possibly partial dislocations or subluxations.

  18. QUESTION:
    is ther any foundation that will help with medical bills when your diagnosed with rhumatoid arthritis?

    • ANSWER:
      Have you contacted the National Arthritis Foundation or Association? That would be my first step.

  19. QUESTION:
    my son has rhumatoid arthritis,?
    my son has rhumatoid arthritis, and chronic pain syndrome, but his muscles in his legs are wasting away , yet he walks alot does exersise that the hospital physio gave him, yet there still wasting away, any ideas what is causing it? (its not MS,he was tested for that).

    • ANSWER:
      Muscle atrophy is common in rheumatoid arthritis. You need to speak to your son's rheumatologist.

      ....

  20. QUESTION:
    rhumatoid arthritis, are there any natural meds you can take for this disease?
    i am taking meds that are causing skin prolems and nausia. any info would be appreciated

    • ANSWER:
      Here are the Homeopathic Head Remedies for Arthritis(including Gout,Arthritis Deformans and Rheumatism) Select the remedy which is the most similar to your conditions and take it as prescribed I have also given the potency and the dosage :-

      Pain knee joints,worse by movements;better initial movements,continuous pain in joints,worse while rising from seat;pain in heels,worse by movements. Cassia Sophera 30, 4 hourly

      Acute attack of gout of joints of the feet.Pain with bright red swelling Aconite Nap 200, 2 hourly

      Pain with inflammation,worse by movements. Bryonia Alb 200 or 1M, 6 hourly

      Complaints worse after rest and exposure to cold Rhus Tox 200 or 1M, 4 hourly

      Complaints worse during menstruation;beginning at the time of menopause;more in hands and feet Caulophyllum 30, 4 hourly

      When the origin of complaints is gonorrhoeal;worse during day time. Medorrhinum 1M, fortnightly(3 Doses)

      When the origin of complaints is tubercular Tuberculinum k.1M, fortnightly (3 Doses)

      Complaints of small joints with red or pale swelling;tenderness and shifting pains;worse by motion.Main remedy for gout during cold weather Colchicum 30, 4 hourly

      When Rhus tox cease to work;pain is worse in cold damp weather and better by movements Calcarea carb 200 or 1M, 6 hourly(6 Doses)

      Nodosities in the joints with gastric complaints.At last nodules become painless(Rheumatoid Arthritis).Tongue whitish thickly coated Antim Cruda 30 or 200, 6 hourly

      Complaints of feets and ankles;stiffness Drosera 200 fortnightly(3 Doses)

      Complaints of long bones;contraction of ligaments Causticum 30 or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain worse at night;in wet weather;Rheumatism of large muscles Cimicifuga 30, 4 hourly

      Rheumatism;worse in damp cold weather.Gout.Pain in limbs and hip joints Natrum Sulph 30 or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain travels downwards affecting the large part of a limb and passes through quickly along course of nerve Kalmia Lat 30 or 200, 6 hourly

      Pains worse during rest,night and warmth,better by cold,open air and movements Pulsatilla 30 or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain - violent;bruised or as if sprained ;cannot bear touch,feels somebody coming near him may touch him and hit the affected part Arnica Montana 200, 4 hourly

      Gout of great toe and joints with swelling;soreness and drawing pain on stepping;worse in warmth,pressure and motion.Pain travels upwards;better cold compresses Ledum Pal 200, 4 hourly

      Gouty nodosities of joints;tearing pain and extremities and contraction of the muscles Guaiacum 30, 4 hourly

      Chronic nodosities of joints;hands twisted,out of shape due to deposits of water of soda Ammonium Phos.6X or 30, 4 hourly

      Gouty complaints with offensive urine Acid-Benzoic 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      When there is red sand in urine in gouty patients Lycopodium 30, 4 hourly

      severe pain with enlargement of the joints;worse during rest and when storm approaches Rhododendron 200 or 1M 10 min(3 Doses)

      Almost a specific for gout(to drain out uric acid and urates) Urtica Urens.Q, 4 hourly,8 -10 drops in hot water

      Arthritic deformans(chronic rheumatoid,particularly of fingers) Picric Acid 30, 4 hourly

      Rheumatic pains or arthritis after checked diarrhoea Abrotanum 30 or 200, 4 hourly(6 Doses)

      Specific for pain with numbness;Pain so severe patient says that he would prefer death than the pain Chamomilla 200 or 1M, 1/2 hourly (3 Doses)

      Pain appear diagonally as right arm and left leg with sensation of cold,numbness and tingling Agaricus Mus.30 or 200, 4 hourly

      In weak persons;burning pain with chilliness,feels better by heat,while eating,and worse in cold open air Capsicum 30 or 200, 4 hourly

      Unbearable pain;rigidity and stiffness.Superiority/inferiority complex Platina 1M weekly(3 Doses)

      Pain flies like electric shock;due to exposurse of damp cold weather.Better by warmth and rest Phytolacca 30 or 200, 4 hourly

      Rheumatic pain,worse after washing clothes,doing laundry work Sepia 30 or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain in long bones;may be due to injury or rheumatism Ruta Grav 200, 6 hourly

      Pain worse on slightest touch specially after loss of vital fluids like excessive bleeding,diarrhoea,vomiting China Off.6X or 30, 3 hourly

      Pain in the small joints of extremities with swelling.Backache,worse in the morning before rising Staphysagria 30 or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain heels; better by putting most of the weight on them Berberis Vulgaris Q, 4 hourly,8 to10 drops in hot water

      Stiffing pain in all parts of the body;worse by movement Stellaria Q, 4 hourly, 8-10 drops in warm water

      Rheumatic pain without swelling;pain joints;worse at night Iodium 30, 4 hourly

      Osteo-arthritis of large joints with degeneration.Pain,swelling,stiffness and tenderness of joints;worse by motion(cracking joints) and cold ;better by warmth O.A.Nosode 1M, weekly (6 Doses)

      Chronic muscular rheumatism of back and neck.Intense pain along with sciatic nerve.Numbness alternates with pain Gnaphalium 30 or 200, 4 hourly

      Muscular atrophy;rigidity and stiffness Strychninum 3X or 6X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatism accompained with skin ailments and itiching;cannot walk erect Sulpher 200 10 min (3 Doses)

      Rheumatism of knee joint;with round worms Natrum Phos.6X or 30, 4 hourly

      For defective bony growth;better by warmth and worse by cold Calcarea Flour.12X or 30, 4 hourly
      ************************************************************
      If your symptoms differ from the ones given above please email me with your complete symptoms and I would be glad to help you. Get well soon Friend !
      Take Care and God Bless you !

  21. QUESTION:
    Treatment of Rhumatoid Arthritis patient of advance stage,is possible of not?
    My wife is a patient of Rhumatoid Arthritis since last 20 Years.Her both feets and hands have been deformed.Her left knes have been replaced(TKR) and her right ankle have been fused also.She is having acute pain with swelling in her both the elbows,hence not able to drink a glass of water her own.She had gone under treatment in various cities,Doctors, but could not be cured/relief . Is there any treatment,Doctor or pathy which can give her some relief ?

    • ANSWER:
      THERE NIS A VERY GOOD rHEUMATOID dOCTOR IN tOLEDO AT tHE rUPERT cENTER AT THE mEDICAL cOLLEDGE OF oHIO...OR mco, HIS NAME IS dOCTOR kAHALIE. hE IS VERY GOOD, SYMPATHETIC TO PAIN AND SETS IMMEDIATLY ABOUT PUTTING Y0U BACK ON A HEALTHY LIFESTLYE. i AM TAKING eMBREL, AND METHOTREXATE. i HAVE NOT FELT SO ALIVE FOR YEARS!! MY PAIN IS UNDER CONTROL AND THE DAMAGE HAS STOPPED. iT IS TRULY WONDERFUL....

      Faculty Contact: Bashar Kahaleh, M.D.

      MEDICAL COLLEGE OF OHIO
      DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE
      DIVISION OF Rheumatology and Immunology

      X4271, Pager 444-1641
      Email: bkahaleh@mco.edu

      http://hsc.utoledo.edu/medicine/curriculum/Rheumatology.PDF

  22. QUESTION:
    My mother has Rhumatoid Arthritis what help is out there for her!?

    • ANSWER:
      HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT FOR ARTHRITIS without any side effects or complications of any sort, (Arthritis including Gout, Arthritis Deformans/Osteoarthritis and Rheumatism) :-

      Pain knee joints, worse by movements; better initial movements, continuous pain in joints, worse while rising from seat; pain in heels, worse by movements. Cassia Sophera 30X, 4 hourly

      Acute attack of gout of joints of the feet.Pain with bright red swelling Aconite Nap 200, 2 hourly

      Pain with inflammation, worse by movements. Bryonia Alba 200 or 1M, 6 hourly

      Complaints worse after rest and exposure to cold Rhus tox 200 or 1M, 4 hourly

      Complaints worse during menstruation; beginning at the time of menopause; more in hands and feet Caulophyllum 30X, 4 hourly

      When the origin of complaints is gonorrhoeal; worse during day time. Medorrhinum 1M. fortnightly (3 Doses)

      When the origin of complaints is tubercular Tuberculinum k, 1M fortnightly (3 Doses)

      Complaints of small joints with red or pale swelling; tenderness and shifting pains; worse by motion. Main remedy for gout during cold weather Colchicum 30X, 4 hourly

      When Rhus Tox cease to work; pain is worse in cold damp weather and better by movements Calcarea Carb 200 or 1M, 6 hourly (6 Doses)

      Nodosities in the joints with gastric complaints. At last nodules become painless (Rheumatoid Arthritis). Tongue whitish thickly coated Antim Crud 30X or 200, 6 hourly

      Complaints of feets and ankles; stiffness Drosera 200 fortnightly (3 Doses)

      Complaints of long bones; contraction of ligaments Causticum 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain worse at night; in wet weather; Rheumatism of large muscles Cimicifuga 30X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatism; worse in damp cold weather. Gout.Pain in limbs and hip joints Natrum Sulph 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain travels downwards affecting the large part of a limb and passes through quickly along course of nerve Kalmia Lat 30X or 200, 6 hourly

      Pains worse during rest, night and warmth, better by cold, open air and movements Pulsatilla 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain :- violent; bruised or as if sprained ; cannot bear touch, feels somebody coming near him may touch him and hit the affected part Arnica Montana 200, 4 hourly

      Gout of great toe and joints with swelling; soreness and drawing pain on stepping; worse in warmth, pressure and motion. Pain travels upwards; better cold compresses Ledum Pal 200, 4 hourly

      Gouty nodosities of joints; tearing pain and extremities and contraction of the muscles Guaiacum 30 4 hourly

      Chronic nodosities of joints; hands twisted, out of shape due to deposits of water of soda Ammonium Phos 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      Gouty complaints with offensive urine Acid Benzoic 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      When there is red sand in urine in gouty patients Lycopodium 30, 4 hourly

      Severe pain with enlargement of the joints; worse during rest and when storm approaches Rhododendron 200 or 1M, 10 min (3 Doses)

      Almost a specific for gout (to drain out uric acid and urates) Urtica Urens Q(Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8 -10 drops in hot water

      Arthritic deformans (chronic rheumatoid, particularly of fingers) Picric Acid 30X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatic pains or arthritis after checked diarrhoea Abrotanum 30 or 200 4 hourly (6 Doses)

      Specific for pain with numbness; Pain so severe patient says that he would prefer death than the pain Chamomilla 200 or 1M, 1/2 hourly (3 Doses)

      Pain appear diagonally as right arm and left leg with sensation of cold, numbness and tingling Agaricus Mus 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      In weak persons; burning pain with chilliness, feels better by heat, while eating, and worse in cold open air Capsicum 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Unbearable pain; rigidity and stiffness. Superiority / inferiority complex Platina 1M, weekly (3 Doses)

      Pain flies like electric shock; due to exposurse of damp cold weather. Better by warmth and rest Phytolacca 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Rheumatic pain, worse after washing clothes, doing laundry work Sepia 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain in long bones; may be due to injury or rheumatism Ruta Grav 200, 6 hourly

      Pain worse on slightest touch specially after loss of vital fluids like excessive bleeding, diarrhoea, vomiting China Off 6X or 30, 3 hourly

      Pain in the small joints of extremities with swelling. Backache, worse in the morning before rising Staphysagria 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Pain heels; better by putting most of the weight on them Berberis Vulgaris Q (Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8 - 10 drops

      Stiffing pain in all parts of the body; worse by movement Stellaria Q(Mother Tincture) 4 hourly, 8-10 drops in warm water

      Rheumatic pain without swelling; pain joints; worse at night Iodium 30X, 4 hourly

      Osteo-arthritis of large joints with degeneration. Pain, swelling, stiffness and tenderness of joints; worse by motion (cracking joints) and cold ; better by warmth O.A.Nosode 1M, weekly (6 Doses)

      Chronic muscular rheumatism of back and neck. Intense pain along with sciatic nerve. Numbness alternates with pain Gnaphalium 30X or 200, 4 hourly

      Muscular atrophy; rigidity and stiffness Strychninum 3X or 6X, 4 hourly

      Rheumatism accompained with skin ailments and itiching; cannot walk erect Sulphur 200, 10 min (3 Doses)

      Rheumatism of knee joint; with round worms Natrum Phos 6X or 30, 4 hourly

      For defective bony growth; better by warmth and worse by cold Calcarea Flour 12X or 30, 4 hourly

      Take the remedy which is similar to your symptoms.
      No side effects or complications if taken as directed, please do not exceed the given dosage and under any circumstances do not try to mix any remedies and avoid Chocolates, Mints, Coffee, Red Meat, Alcoholic and Carbonated drinks, Spicy Rich Food while taking any Homeopathic remedies, and keep the medicines away from direct sunlight, heat strong smells and perfumes and do not store them in the fridge.

      Curing without any side effects or Complications Thats the Beauty of Homeopathic Medicine (Cures Par Excellence)

      Take Care and God Bless !

      P.S
      For more information please read this answer too :- http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=ArPlqi.DpJ4hU6Pdd_84oL7ty6IX?qid=20070730090710AA9mQNo&show=7#profile-info-ckarxS0Caa

  23. QUESTION:
    Should people with Rhumatoid Arthritis eat eggs?

    • ANSWER:
      Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune disease (where our antibodies target our own body tissues). What's causing this reaction is still not known for sure. But most experts suspect or say that it could be because of infections that is making your own immune system fight against you.

      But one thing we know for sure is that many research and studies have show the eggs and diary products are common foods which triggers Rheumatoid Arthritis. On the other hand fruits and vegetables are found to have some benefits in this regard.

  24. QUESTION:
    Is rhumatoid arthritis the same as lupus?

    • ANSWER:
      No. While they're both thought to be related to "auto-immunity", they're different conditions.

  25. QUESTION:
    Can service dogs be used to help people with rhumatoid arthritis and if so how?
    And could you also tell me more awhat these dogs can do exactly and where could i find more information at. im asking because my grandma lives alone in another state ( we tried to get her to come live with or near us but she doesnt want to) and she has rhumatoid arthritis and has had knee replacments in both of her legs. She can still walk and can remember stuff very well but imean she cant get around like she used to and cant lift things like she used to. She also does not have a car as when she was driving she was hit by another car and does not have the money riht now to pay for a new car. could a service dog help her in chores like getting something that may be too heavy for her or just giving her some company as we do visit her but we cant visit her always. thanks for awnsering in advance.
    i meant heavy as in a plastic laundry basket or a small jug

    • ANSWER:
      Service dogs are great company dogs, they can drag heavier things to you, open doors, get small things like the phone, shoes, things your G-ma can't bend down easily to pick up. I don't exactly have a place you can go check, but if you start with looking at sites for Guide Dogs for the Blind, you'll see that there will be lots of links for other specialty dog services. We have a service dog, he's a bloodhound and his best attribute is loving going to retirement homes and being petted and drooled over. Good luck to ya. Smiles, Spring

  26. QUESTION:
    Rhumatoid Arthritis (sorry, but can't spell it!) - Advice?
    My girlfriend has rheumatoid arthritis (sorry can't spell it!) and was diagnosed with it in her early 30's. She takes a low dosage of medication for it and is ok at the moment, but suffers occasionally with the joints in her wrists. Does anyone have any advice on treatment, help, and making her life easier? She is only 37 and still has most of her life ahead of her. Anyone have any experience of this condition?

    • ANSWER:
      There are a number of people who will flog any sort of thing to you when your wife is in this position.
      First thing to remember is that if she has been diagnosed with RA, then sadly it is not going to go away. In many respects it can be hereditary. Check that one out if she has not done so already.
      Secondly, there is nothing to say that it will continue to get worse as she gets older, but in saying that for most ordinary people they do experience more pains and aches as they get older, so why not an RA suffer too? Sometimes, the disease can go in stages, where it is quite active, and other times she may remain fairly even.
      She needs to watch her diest, from two points of view. Her mobility is probably affected, so the last thing she needs is to start putting on loads of weight. (again we all put on some as we get older!!). However with her probable lack of mobility she needs to be extra careful, as she will not be able to work it off. Also more green vegetables and water. Cut back on acidy foods and sweet foods............in other words try to cut out all processed abd refined foods. This will increase the food bill!!
      Make sure she keeps warm, does not overdo it in relation to walking, cleaning etc!! More house work for you now!! On a good day make sure she does not thing she is great and do too much, as that will only make things worse for the next couple of days. Let her find a middle ground, and stick to it. She may be on metatrexate, a common drug for RA. Let her GP monitor it carefully, or her Rhumatologist. The dosage may need to be increased.
      Overall, this is not a gloomy story. From someof the replies above it would seem that way. Braclets etc work for some, and not for others. Trying alternative treatment works for some and not for others. You need to again watch that you dont spend a fortune trying to 'cure' something that may not be 'curable'. Common sense really is what is needed.
      Hope that all works out. By the way my uncle has had it very bad for over 25 years.....on very strong medication etc etc. Is in a lot of pain, but he just gets on with it. And worse. We are in Ireland, where the dampness does not help someone who has RA. All that rain!! Very common over here! Good luck to ye! Keep positive! Do the simple/little things well, and thats all you need. Never mind big huge changes.

  27. QUESTION:
    What are good toys to get for kids with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis?
    In one of my classes we are going to make toys for kids with disabilities and I decided to make a toy for a kid who has juvenile rhumatoid arthritis ages 8-12.

    If you can give me suggestions on how to make a toy like this I would really appreciate it but otherwise you can give me some toys ideas or what kind of toys they would like

    • ANSWER:
      Anything that u would make any other kid. I have had really bad JRA since I was9 and played with the same toys everyone else played with.

  28. QUESTION:
    does trigger finger lead to rhumatoid arthritis, ive had it in 4 fingers already?

    • ANSWER:
      I don't know for sure, but I would imagine repeated use of a muscle could do damage of some sort. My advice is to put your guns away for awhile.

  29. QUESTION:
    can you get disability for rhumatoid arthritis?

    • ANSWER:
      A diagnosis is only one tiny piece of the puzzle. Yes, some people with RA qualify for disability. The most important part is how well you can function and how severely the disease impairs you. But it is a complex formula that also takes into account your past work, education level, and age.

  30. QUESTION:
    Juvenile Rhumatoid Arthritis possibly Lupus - Possible diagnosis for my 15 year old?
    One night my son woke me up in the middle of the night that his knee was swollen. The next day, we noticed that it had water/fluid on/in it. In talking to him, he has had no accidents nothing that he can remember to have hurt his knee. Took him to an orthopod on Monday and he has us going to see a Rhumatologist and going in for MRI and blood work. He really isnt in any pain, only when he squats down or does bends his knee under pressure.

    I am not familiar with these conditions, anyone have any ideas? That is just what he could come up with why a very healthy/active 15 year old would just start having these symptoms.

    • ANSWER:
      You were right to consult an Orthopaedist who will order blood tests, joint scans and X-Rays to confirm his diagnosis.

      Lyme disease is a possibility. Ask the doctor to test your son for the bacteria causing Lyme disease.

      Are there any other cases of arthritis or rheumatic diseases among your relatives? Chronic arthritis is usually prevalent in families where a defective gene is passed on by parents to their children.

      Most people will grow out of Juvenile onset rheumatoid arthritis. It is brought about by a - temporary - infection, the patient being able to resume a normal life once the infection is resolved.

      Adult onset rheumatoid arthritis is different as it usually develops during the late teens or early twenties, possibly as early as 16, and rapidly settles into a chronic, debilitating, generalized infection.

      There are a few hundred types of arthritis and rheumatic diseases. The good news is that science is progressing rapidly in its understanding of rheumatic diseases.

      Antibiotics are now used to achieve full remissions for at least 40%, if not 65% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For more info, please join our group at:

      http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/antibio

  31. QUESTION:
    Rhumatoid arthritis...need some advice?
    Hey all,

    Apologies this is quite lengthy but my mother is 79, 80 in november she has suffered with chronic rheumatoid arthris for nearly 40 years now god bless her. She has always kept herself going despite it affecting her bones/hands etc.

    However, i know she is getting older but her rheumatologist consultant has put her on methrotrexate which she has been on for almost 8-10 months now. During this time she has had infection after infection on them and has been hospitialized 3 times and operated on due to her gettin an infection in an ulcer in her foot, the infection sadly reached her bones in her toes last year and she had to have an amputation. She has always been mobile and although slow she has eventually got there and always been independant it is killing me to see her this way and she has to have to use of a mobility scooter or a wheel chair to ge her from a to b now.

    I have done some research on methrotrexate ( not sure if spelt correctly ) and this has alarmed me very much so that its could be the cause of all these bad infections she keeps getting and i am fearing for my mothers well being. She has tried to contact her specialis with no attempts and although i keep pushing her to come off the medication she hesitates worrying she wont be able totake the pain of an inflammation flare up from her arthritis. I live 20 mile away from her but speak on the phone daily and i go see her she comes stays with me etc. but unfortunatly i cant always get over to attend appointments with her to express my concerns to her consultant.

    Has anyone ever had any experience with this medication or no someone who has who could maybe help me more. The info i have found on it am i right in saying this is 100% probable to be causing my mothers infections.

    Any help is appreciated.

    Much love

    Sue

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry to hear your mother is going through this. Rheumatoid Arthritis is a horrible and serious disease. People don't get its severity but it's a chronic condition that can affect the organs as well as the joints.

      The medication your mother is on is known as a DMARD or a disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug. People Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune disease, most of the DMARDs used do suppress the immune system. Methotrexate is usually prescribed to those with a moderate to severe disease.

      There are other DMARDs that are not immunosuppressants. They are usually prescribed for those with a milder disease, but can be used in combination and may be enough. The two drugs that fit in the DMARD but non-immunosuppressant are Plaquenil and Sulfasalazine. They both work just like Methotrexate but don't suppress the immune system. There are also non-steroidal anti-inflammatories like Naproxen, Advil, Celebrex and Mobic. Your mother might be on these already but they're often given to people with RA. Some people also find benefit from a long term antibiotic. There has been some research to suggest that a group of antibiotics called tetracyclines can help with RA. Doxycycline is considered safe than Minocycline because it can cause drug induced Lupus. Here's some information- http://www.roadback.org/. You can Google any of these medications and find information.

      There are other medications that are DMARDs that are immunosuppressants. Some people respond better to one drug over the other, but if your main concern is that she gets infections lots, then you probably want to avoid these. There are new medications used in people with RA called Biologics. These also suppress the immune system too and they're very expensive.

      I'm studying to be a primary school teacher so I was a bit apprehensive about being on an immunosuppressant. I'm currently on Plaquenil, Doxycycline and Naproxen. When I have a bad flare up I take Prednisone. Prednisone is a steroid and an immunosuppressant. It's a drug that can be a used in short term. The side effects of Prednisone are longer and scarier than Methotrexate, but in short courses under the guidance of a doctor, it's safe.

      Your mother really needs to get in touch with her rheumatologist. They can be horrible people and you have to be forceful and take charge of your health. She could also try asking her PCP or GP to get in touch.

      I'd also recommend if you have questions about your mother's RA that you look for a online forum especially for RA or autoimmune diseases. There are the odd people on here who have any idea, but you're more likely to get rubbish. The best one is www.dailystrength.org and find the Rheumatoid Arthritis board.

      Good luck =]

      .....

  32. QUESTION:
    how you can diagnosis rhumatoid arthritis?

    • ANSWER:
      You can't, but a medical doctor can.

  33. QUESTION:
    Psoriatic/Rhumatoid Arthritis doctors in NYC or lower CT?
    I am taking methotrexate and don't think its working ( i know it takes a while so I am giving it more time) I am 25 by the way. Humira or Embrel is in the foreseeable future. Is it worth the risk. The pain in my hands is terrible and more specifically in three fingers on my dominant hand. Are there any other effective treatments other then the three i have mentioned/.

    Does anyone know of any experts in the NYC or lower CT area in the field of psoriatic arthritis or Rheumatoid.

    • ANSWER:
      I can't answer your question, but whatever doctor you go to, make sure they test you for celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease caused by gluten intolerance and is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Some of the symptoms of both conditions overlap with celiac disease and some people find that their arthritis improves when they start a gluten free diet. A lot of physicians have limited knowledge of celiac disease and only look for it in patients with diarrhea or weight loss, but that's really only the tip of the iceberg in terms of symptoms and everyone with an autoimmune disease really should be tested. Let me know if you have any questions.

  34. QUESTION:
    how do you get rid of pain due to arthritis?
    I have rhumatoid arthritis and am only 27...also i am nursing what can i take to eleviate the pain....My dr. has me on loritab 10/325 4 times a day and i quit taking them because they are addictive
    I also have screws in my foot from surgerries...I was on loritab during pregnancy prescribed by my Dr.

    • ANSWER:
      I read that eating red meat aggravates it due to the oxalic acid.... try eliminating red meat and see if it helps. Also try capsaicin cream on the affected areas. Can't believe he gave you lortabs while nursing.........

  35. QUESTION:
    Can I play fastpitch softball with Rhumatoid arthritis?
    I've been playing for over 10 years.
    Pretty much everyday of the week for 2 hrs.
    I had knee surgery last summer after a softball injury in the outfield.
    I was diagnosed with RA in december,
    I'm on planquenil and naproxen 500mg for my arthritis.
    I'm a senior, and because i missed all the showcases because of my injuries I
    cant get a softball scholarship like i always wanted
    and i cant play in college because i know how extreme the workouts are.
    My question is it a bad or good idea.
    I play centerfield which is the most land to cover.
    I'm afraid to ever slide because that will put so much force on my knee.
    I'm going to try to start playing next week once i get an approval note from my knee doctor.
    But will I be making it worse? Any advice on how to reduce the pain before and after exercise so that I can play everyday not one day hurt for the next few days and than play again.
    I want to at least be able to play my last season of my softball career..
    Thanks so much.

    • ANSWER:
      Wow, So young to have my disease!

      I played modified for years, then coached girls fastpitch, the about 12 years ago moved on to the best and most fun area of softball. I umpire! Get to be in as many games as I want. Doesn't matter what the score is I always win! Keeps me on the ballfield. I make all kinds of new friends and get paid as well!

      I met a kid a couple of years ago who just graduated college last December. He had never had a job in his life other than umpiring softball! Seriously, you can make 0 to over 0 in a weekend working travel tournaments if you work at it. My wife and I made 00 together one long weekend (thursday-sunday!). If you want, send a pm through YA and I can tell you how to get started. It really is a blast!

  36. QUESTION:
    Rhumatoid Arthritis (RA) and pregnancy?
    My sis-in-law has RA and would love to become pregnant someday. I'm wondering if anybody who has had RA or knows somebody who has what they did for the pain during pregnancy. I know alot of the medicines aren't safe..are there any herbal rememdies or any medicines that are safe? Thanks!
    she will be talking to her doctor about anything she takes-she's just wondering what all is out there so she knows all her options before going in

    • ANSWER:
      My mother has RA and while I don't know about the meds during pregnancy, I know of several women that have had succesful pregnancies with RA. I think the biggest thing that you can do is be a support system to her once the baby is born. I am sure as with my mother, that she will have good days and bad days when caring for her child. Good luck to your sister-in-law.

  37. QUESTION:
    is there a surgical procedure to get of rid rhumatid arthritis?
    I have juvenile rhumatoid arthritis and it holds me back from bein in a career i want to be plsease help if you can

    • ANSWER:
      None that I know of. Its an autoimmune disease, which means your immune system is attacking your body and so far, no one has found any cure for this. I have a very rare autoimmune disease called hypocomplentemic utricarial vasculitis syndrome. One of the symptoms is arthritis. The pain and inflammation is kept under control with non-steriod anti-inflammatory medications. I wish I could be of more help. Best of luck to you!

  38. QUESTION:
    my doctor just diagnosed me with severe rhumatoid arthritis/ wants me to use the humeria pen ... I'm scared
    I've been in agonizing, screaming pain for years with this stuff, and have only recently gotten the courage to see a dr. he yelled at me bc now i have "disfigured" by body already due to the swelling ... bad hands and shoulders, and i'm still young, well, ish ... 31.

    I'm so scared of taking drugs and medicine. Also, you can't have plans to have a baby .. . and apparently i gotta take this stuff for ever, or at least the next 5 years -- by that time i'm be too old to have kids.

    I'm just so sad about this. but ... my question is, does anyone take humeria, does it help? have your disfiguration gone away any?

    Thanks everyone!

    • ANSWER:
      I don't know if this would help, but you could try the anti-inflammatory diet...low protein, low sugar, low fat is the basics of it...all those things make prostaglandins, which make pain and inflammation in general...he should not be yelling at you.. that is abusive...is he a rheumatologist? that is your best bet ....

      Anti-Inflammatory Diet

      To supplement anti-inflammatory nutrients while continuing to ingest pro-inflammatory substances is counter-productive. These dietary guidelines help reduce inflammation for most people.

      1. Decrease or eliminate red meat and dairy products. Some arthritis patients also seem to react to poultry.
      2. Decrease or eliminate refined sugar.
      3. Eliminate caffeine (including coffee, black tea, cola drinks, and chocolate).
      4. Eliminate any likely food allergens during the initial three or four weeks such as gluten grains, citrus fruit, and night shade vegetables (tomatoes, white potatoes, red and green peppers, eggplant, paprika, and tobacco). These foods can be added back into the diet one at a time (one new food every third day) while carefully observing the effect. Forms are available to make it easier to monitor the effect of these foods.
      5. Drink plenty of pure water. Chlorine is an antibiotic and can diminish our friendly gut flora. Studies have associated chlorine in drinking water with increased risk of some types of cancer. It is probably best to drink at least a half hour before the meal and no sooner than a hour after so the digestive juices won't be diluted.
      6. Increase your consumption of fresh, raw or lightly steamed fruits and vegetables. Good fruit choices include apples, bananas, grapes, mangoes, papayas, peaches, pears, prunes, kiwis, and other sub-acid fruits. Use discretion if the patient has blood sugar problems although fruit often does not cause a problem if the diet is low fat and high fiber. Good vegetables include asparagus, spinach, zucchini, parsley, artichoke (without the butter), kelp and other sea-veggies, okra, snow peas and many more. Cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower as well as onions, chives, and peppers are very nutritious but may create digestive difficulties for some people. The solution is often simply chewing the food better and possibly adding supplemental digestive enzymes such as Metazyme or Beano. Spices such as garlic, tumeric, etc. are also very healthy and should be used regularly if well tolerated.
      7. For snacks, consider raw vegetables, fruit, nuts and seeds. The fruits and veggies contain lots of enzymes, bioflavonoids, and other phytochemicals, while the raw nuts and seeds are rich in essential fatty acids, especially flax seed, pumpkin and sunflower seed, walnuts and almonds (almonds can be allergenic to some people). Raw seeds like sesame and flax need to be ground for proper digestion. An electric coffee grinder works well.
      These healthy snacks can be combined e.g. raw vegetable sticks dipped in tahini (ground sesame seeds) or almond butter.

      These suggestions are very helpful for most people with inflammatory conditions such as sprains, strains, bursitis, tendonitis, arthritis, etc. and can be used in conjunction with supplementation. Most people find that eating this way also often lowers blood lipids, smoothes out blood sugar variations, helps with weight management, reduces digestive problems, increases energy, and more. It is important to note that fats digest more slowly so when fat is reduced in the diet, we may become hungry sooner and be tempted to eat M&M's, corn chips, snack crackers, cookies, etc. This hunger is not a problem if we have prepared plenty of healthy snacks as mentioned above.
      http://www.dcdoctor.com/pages/brimhall/pdf/antiinflammatorydiet.pdf (need adobe reader)

      http://nutrition.about.com/od/dietsformedicaldisorders/a/antiinflamfood.htm
      http://www.cidpusa.org/diet.html
      http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/QA/QA252779/

  39. QUESTION:
    Can anyone recomend any 'alternative therapies' for rhumatiod arthritis?
    I'm 22 and I have had rhumatoid arthritis since I was 17 and I really want it to go away. I'm most affected in my knees, my right hip, my elbows and my back and the doctors can't do anything for me other than pain killers. But I'm only 22, what am I going to be like when I'm 62?

    • ANSWER:
      There can be other therapies but I can recommend the ultimate GANOTHERAPY.

  40. QUESTION:
    Can i still get in the FBI if i have arthritis?
    Im a senior in high school and the FBI has caught my interest i have juvenile rhumatoid arthritis though.. will that automatically disqualify me? please help

    • ANSWER:
      You will be disqualified.

  41. QUESTION:
    If Psoriatic Arthritis is a "T" cell malfunction, does exercise have the same benefis as those with Osteo ?
    I know that strengthening and stretching are good ways to support joints and maintain an active lifestyle with Arthritis, but the cause of my condition is genetic, and not physical. Will excercise have the same effect for me as it would for someone with Osteo-Arthritis, or even Rhumatoid?
    Thanks for the answer...

    I am a tennis pro who teaches full time on hard courts. I am worrie that my career is going to aggrivate my condition. Am I kidding myself in thinking that I can maintain my condition AND teach tennis for a living?

    • ANSWER:
      Psoriatic arthritis:

      Self-care

      Some of the most encouraging news about psoriatic arthritis is that you can do a great deal on your own to help manage the condition:

      Maintain a healthy weight. Maintaining a healthy weight places less strain on your joints, leading to reduced pain and increased energy and mobility. The best way to increase nutrients while limiting calories is to eat more plant-based foods — fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

      Exercise regularly. Exercise is essential for everyone — and that includes people with arthritis. In fact, exercise alone can help relieve many of the symptoms of arthritic conditions, including pain and fatigue. You're the best judge of how much you can do, but an appropriate activity level should make you feel the same or better afterward, not worse. Introduce new activities gradually and heed warning signs. If you experience new pain later in the day or fatigue the following day, you've probably done too much.

      Good Luck!
      DS

  42. QUESTION:
    do you know the real cause of arthritis?
    arhthitis like rhumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis are recently considered as non curable diseases. what is your opinion?

    • ANSWER:
      Some cause of arthritis are:
      # Genetics
      Exactly how much heredity or genetics contributes to the cause of arthritis is not well understood. However, there are likely genetic variations that can contribute to the cause of arthritis.

      # Age
      Cartilage becomes more brittle with age and has less of a capacity to repair itself. As people grow older they are more likely to develop arthritis.

      # Weight
      Because joint damage is partly dependent on the load the joint has to support, excess body weight can lead to arthritis. This is especially true of the hips and knees that can be worn quickly in heavier patients.

      # Previous Injury
      Joint damage can cause irregularities in the normal smooth joint surface.

      There are Specialty Clinic for Arthritis to help people who suffers fron these problems.

  43. QUESTION:
    i have rhumetoid arthritis and i cant do much anymore can i get chaperted out for that?
    ithe doctore diagnosed me with acute imune rhumatoid arthritis i was wondering if i was gonna get chaptered out since its not something you can cure it will only progress

    • ANSWER:
      Not sure what you mean by chaperted out but I feel for you, my wife has had Rhumatoid for years and there is not a lot that can be done apart from pain killers.

  44. QUESTION:
    Arthritis and Pregnancy?
    My sister is on her first pregnacy and has been diagnosed with Rhumatoid Arthritis for over 6 years. She is in severe pain from the rhumatoid but can't take any of her medication, nor painkillers (except tylonol which is does nothing). I worry about her hurting so much. Anyone have any thoughts or experiences with this?

    • ANSWER:
      When I was pregnant my arthritis got a lot worse. I tried heating pads and ice packs and massage. It helped a little but unfortunately it will hurt. Resting the joints she has the ra in will help as well. It is only for 9 months and the baby is worth it, but I know that is not much consolation for you when you are concerned for your sister. Not sure what your beleifs are but prayer helps too. If your sister is a beleiver she could try being annointed at church it has helped me. Good luck and a big pat on the back for being concerned about your sister.

  45. QUESTION:
    What are the long term affects of using Ibuprofin?
    I was diagnosed with RA, (rhumatoid arthritis), but do not have insurance, nor the finances to afford medication, so I use a lot of Ibuprofin. I am afraid of becoming addicted to pain killers so I dont want to take them. The Ibuprofin is working well now, but now I am up from taking 600 mgs to taking 1000 mgs. What do you think?

    • ANSWER:
      Ibuprofen is really hard on you stomach, and can cause bleeding and even ulcers. I wouldn't keep up with that.

  46. QUESTION:
    When I am old enough will I be able to join the military with my Conditions?
    I am 14 and I have mild Juvenile Rhumatoid Arthritis and mild to moderate Asthma. When I turn 18 will the Military let me join with these conditions?

    • ANSWER:
      No, not at all. Sorry.

      Edit: The asthma is bad, but the JRA is really the kicker. Your body will never be able to hold up to the rigors of military training. Seriously, sorry dude. Focus on your education and maybe you can be a Department of Defense contractor in some capacity.

  47. QUESTION:
    How can I make my face slimmer?
    I am currently 14 I am skinny but my face is fat causing me to look funny. I was on prednisone for almost a whole year due to my rhumatoid arthritis and I heard moon face was an side affect. I am off it now . It's been about 5months since I've been off it but I've been exercisin fir the longest and drinking water I can't seem to lose this face can someone pls tell me if my face will go back to normal and what would it take?

    • ANSWER:
      Use facial exercises to achieve a slimmer face. There are facial exercises to get rid of double chin, chubby cheeks, and to help you lose face fat. You can also follow proven meal plans, recipes and diet plans in order to achieve a slimmer face. It is best to follow the routine regularly so your face will look slimmer. You can also try to avoid salty foods, alcoholic drinks, and sodas. They cause water retention which cause chubby cheeks, and definitely not a slimmer face.  

  48. QUESTION:
    Arthritis in my hand?
    My right arm and right hand has nerve damage, and coordination/strength issues. I'm forcing myself to use my right arm more. However I'm alarmed by something.

    After carrying a pitcher of water in my right hand, a couple fingers will stiffen a lot along with shooting pain. It takes a few seconds before I can move them.

    Is this the beginning of arthritis? Rhumatoid Arthritis is very prevalent on my Mom's side.

    Are there any professionals out there, who can offer advice or ideas.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm not sure what Phillip B is promoting
      but
      for authentic information on arthritis (and there are many types)
      see
      www.arc.org.uk
      (Arthritis Research Council)

      If you ask your GP (assuming you are in the uK) for a referral to a physiotherapist, s/he will be able to give you any necessary splints as well as treat you.

  49. QUESTION:
    joint pain a sign of early arthritis???
    For a few years now I've had joint pain in my legs, mainly whenever the weather makes a really drastic change or if I sit in one position too long. My aunt, a nurse, said it MIGHT be juvenile rhumatoid arthritis. Could this be true and is there anything I can do to help prevent it from getting worse?? I'm only 19 and I didn't think arthritis usually set in until you were older and from what I hear about JRA, it sets in earlier on than mine did.

    • ANSWER:
      How old are you? What is your activity level?

      I have heard people say glucosamine chondroitin is like a wonder drug for joint pain - even for rheumatoid arthritis. My family has a history of osteoarthritis and I've been developing intermittent symptoms for years - whenever they get bad, I take a glucosamine chondroitin and it goes away almost immediately. Not sure it's supposed to work that way, but that's been my experience. I think it's supposed to be something you take on an ongoing basis - but I just take it as needed and it seems to make an amazing difference.

      Does your family have history of rhumatoid arthritis? Wonder why your aunt would jump to that drastic diagnosis rather than the more benign osteo arthritis - which can be pretty awful.

      You need to check with your doctor. Make sure you get lots of fluids as with aging the cushioning in all our joints gradually dries up and causes pain - so make sure you stay hydrated. Eat as healthy as possible, get lots of low impact exercise (swimming, elliptical machine, yoga, pilates - the last two especially for flexibility). Don't become a couch potato! Sports like running & tennis really pound on your joints and are probably not great choices. Keep your weight at a healthy level so your body gets nutrients but your skeleton doesn't have to support excess weight.

      My nurse sister tends to leap to dire diagnoses way too fast. Your nurse aunt may have a similar tendency. Don't worry - just do everything you can to be healthy. Booze is very dehydrating and so is coffee.

      Wishing you good health!

  50. QUESTION:
    I need to do Cardio Excersises but have Rhumatoid Arthritus can any one help?
    I need to loose weight and cardio type exercises for a medical condition but have arthritis in most joints and can not afford to go to a gym. the diet is one thing but I need to find suitable exercise program. Help.

    • ANSWER:
      Pool exercising is great for this. Also riding a bike, rather outside or indoor stationary is good. I teach a exercise program for people with arthritis and it is low impact and gentle but aerobic.
      You might want to consider getting a dvd and exercise at home. Go to collagevideo.com and look for low impact. This is a professional site and I use it all the time, it's fantastic.


Sarcoidosis Symptoms

Sarcoidosis (SAR"koi-do'sis) involves inflammation that produces tiny lumps of cells in various organs in your body. The lumps are called granulomas (gran"u-lo'mahs) because they look like grains of sugar or sand. They are very small and can be seen only with a microscope. Sarcoidosis (pronounced SAR-COY-DOE-SIS) is a devastating, potentially fatal inflammatory disease that can appear in almost any organ in the body. Although the lungs are affected in more than 90% of patients, the disease often attacks the heart, eyes, central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Once thought rare, sarcoidosis is now known to be common and affects people worldwide. The cause remains unknown and there is no cure.

Sarcoidosis (SAR-coy-DOH-sis) is an inflammatory disease characterized by granulomas (small rounded outgrowths made up of blood vessels, cells and connective tissues) that can produce many different symptoms. It is generally a chronic disease, lasting for several years or a lifetime. Some people, however, may have a type that only lasts a few months.

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs in the body, but mostly the lungs and lymph glands. In patients with sarcoidosis, abnormal masses or nodules (called granulomas) consisting of inflamed tissues form in certain organs of the body. These granulomas might alter the normal structure and possibly the function of the affected organ(s).
Symptoms of Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that can affect any organ. Common symptoms are vague, such as fatigue unchanged by sleep, lack of energy, weight loss, aches and pains, arthralgia, dry eyes, blurry vision, shortness of breath, a dry hacking cough or skin lesions. The cutaneous symptoms vary, and range from rashes and noduli (small bumps) to erythema nodosum or lupus pernio. It is often asymptomatic.

Shortness of breath (dyspnea) and a cough that won't go away can be among the first symptoms of sarcoidosis. But sarcoidosis can also show up suddenly with the appearance of skin rashes. Red bumps (erythema nodosum) on the face, arms, or shins and inflammation of the eyes are also common symptoms.
In pulmonary sarcoidosis, patients may have a dry cough (without sputum), shortness of breath, or mild chest pain.

The lungs are affected in about 88% of people who have sarcoidosis. People who have sarcoidosis may have a cough or chest pain. Some people have breathing problems, but most people have few or no breathing problems.
In its earliest stages, sarcoidosis may cause few if any symptoms; and those that do occur may be general ones, like those of many other conditions, such as feeling tired, losing weight, fever, and joint pains. Sometimes sarcoidosis that has caused no symptoms is found by chance on a routine chest X-ray.

Causes of Sarcoidosis

Some physicians believe that sarcoidosis may result from a respiratory infection caused by a virus. Others suspect that exposure to toxins or allergens in the environment is to blame. Researchers are looking for answers to this and many other questions about sarcoidosis.

Normally, your immune system helps protect your body from foreign substances and invading microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses. But in sarcoidosis, T-helper lymphocytes - white blood cells that play a key role in your immune response seem to respond too strongly to a perceived threat. This triggers small areas of inflammation called granulomas.

Granulomas are clusters of immune cells (macrophages, lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells). The disease can affect almost any organ of the body, although it most commonly affects the lungs. Sarcoidosis can be acute, subacute, or chronic.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    sarcoidosis symptoms?
    Chest pain

    • ANSWER:
      I actually had this illness twice, the first time, the only indication I had it was my legs were extremely swollen and very painful to the touch (was Erythema nodosum) , I thought my doctor was mad when he suggested a chest x-ray! However, he was quite correct and it was Sarcoidosis, the 2nd time, a year later, I had the more broader symptoms, breathing was very laboured & extreme tiredness, I didn't actually get any chest pain either times so all I suggest is going to your doctors for a check up for verification!
      There's loads of info on the net for it.

  2. QUESTION:
    I need professional advise on Sarcoidosis. What is their symptoms, causes? How would you know you have it?
    Doctors that are specialized with this sickness, are they available in the Philippines? Do you any Best Doctor in the Philippines that I can go to consult?

    • ANSWER:
      A persistent cough. Sarcoidosis is an auto-immune problem. Get a chest x-ray and a chest ct done along with a bronchoscopy.

  3. QUESTION:
    Is anyone familiar with sarcoidosis who can tell me the symptoms, treatments, etc. when it affects the lungs?
    I want to know if there are any known treatments that work and just how serious of a disease it is.

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.stopsarcoidosis.org/sarcoidosis/pulmonary.htm
      This site should get you started.
      God bless.

  4. QUESTION:
    histoplasmosis and sarcoidosis? Same symptoms as cancer? 56 yr old brother.?
    Started with willing weight loss then unexplained weight loss, fatigue, post nasal drip for a couple of months, nausea and finally landing in the hospital with kidney failure. Anyone familiar with these symptoms? Colon cancer does not run in our family, but these symptoms are a sure sign. As far as I know his doctor has not requested a colonoscopy. I definitley know that he has not had one and he is 56 yrs. old.

    • ANSWER:
      These symptoms - unexplained weight loss, fatigue, post nasal drip for a couple of months, nausea and kidney failure are not common presenting signs of colon cancer. There are dozens of diseases which could manifest with this array of symptoms. Colonoscopy would be low on my list of tests to do in this situation. The renal failure would seem the primary concern.

  5. QUESTION:
    what is sarcoidosis, and what are the symptoms ? ?
    Sarcoidosis is a condition that not many have heard about, it can affect lungs, joints and other parts of the body. I have only heard about it recently. Has anyone ever experienced this, and if so, what are some things that help living with sarcoidosis, and how much do anti inflammatory drugs help, if they are taken ?

    • ANSWER:
      What are symptoms of sarcoidosis?

      Shortness of breath (dyspnea) and a cough that won't go away can be among the first symptoms of sarcoidosis. But sarcoidosis can also show up suddenly with the appearance of skin rashes. Red bumps (erythema nodosum) on the face, arms, or shins and inflammation of the eyes are also common symptoms.

      It is not unusual, however, for sarcoidosis symptoms to be more general. Weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, fever, or just an overall feeling of ill health can also be clues to the disease.
      Sarcoidosis is a disease that results from a specific type of inflammation of tissues of the body. It can appear in almost any body organ, but it starts most often in the lungs or lymph nodes.

      The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. The disease can appear suddenly and disappear. Or it can develop gradually and go on to produce symptoms that come and go, sometimes for a lifetime.

      As sarcoidosis progresses, microscopic lumps of a specific form of inflammation, called granulomas, appear in the affected tissues. In the majority of cases, these granulomas clear up, either with or without treatment. In the few cases where the granulomas do not heal and disappear, the tissues tend to remain inflamed and become scarred (fibrotic).

      Sarcoidosis was first identified over 100 years ago by two dermatologists working independently, Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson in England and Dr. Caesar Boeck in Norway. Sarcoidosis was originally called Hutchinson's disease or Boeck's disease. Dr. Boeck went on to fashion today's name for the disease from the Greek words "sark" and "oid," meaning flesh-like. The term describes the skin eruptions that are frequently caused by the illness.

  6. QUESTION:
    Dr's and nurses please, can you tell me what exactly Sarcoidosis is and what are the symptoms?

    • ANSWER:
      Sarcoidosis, is an auto immune disorder. That is characterized by non caseating granulomas nodules, that can form in any part of the body. In 90% of people it starts in the lungs, or the lymph nodes.
      In pulmonary sarcoid, the symptoms are shortness of breath, chest pain, and a present cough that lasts for weeks to months.
      The other symptoms are, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, fevers, night sweats, red watery eyes, small red bumps on the face arms or buttocks, arthritis in the ankles, elbows, wrists and hands, erythema nodosum which are bumps on the skin usually over the shins, and just an over all feeling of ill health.
      There are even more symptoms depending on which organs are effected.
      In 70% of people it disappears just as fast as it comes on. Some people have it and don't know it, some are lucky enough to never need to even be treated for it. But for others it can be life long, and debilitating.
      It can mimic many other disease and disorders. Like lymphoma, lung cancer, TB, lupus, and many more.

  7. QUESTION:
    can a certain diet prevent symptoms of sarcoidosis?

    • ANSWER:
      sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disease with herditary tendancies, u cant prevent it

  8. QUESTION:
    Symptoms: hiatal hernia or sarcoidosis?
    I have been diagnosed with a hiatal hernia and sarcoidosis. I have had a chronic cough for about four years. I still don't know if my coughing is from a hiatal hernia or sarcoidosis, two different doctors have told me they think it is these two different things. My symptoms are: I cough usually an hour after waking up for about 45 minutes, it's like my lungs and throat are reacting or something. I've tried nexium and antacids but nothing works. I've felt some chest pains this winter after a few weeks of doing alot of crunches and I can't drink because if I do I feel like I'm going to have a heart attack. It seems like hiatal hernia but why aren't antacids working? Any ideas?

    • ANSWER:
      if antacids aren't helping/changing your symptoms,don't take more and more antacids.This must mean,the coughing,chest tightness is caused by sarcoidosis.call your Dr. maybe the sarcoidosis affecting your lung function/capacity.did Dr check your heart?EKG maybe?

  9. QUESTION:
    can anyone please tell me the symptoms, treatment and outcome of sarcoidosis and what it is please? IMPORTANT!?
    i don't ave any idea what it is about, and i really need sum information about it becos sumone very close to me has got it so i really need to know AS MUCH INFO as i can so i know how to help them, i need to know what it is, what are the symptoms, how can it be treated and what are the outcomes of it and is there any risks to it PLEASE can sumone help me I would Appreciate it very much

    • ANSWER:
      just type sarcoidosis in google and you can find so much information ,its a chronic disease with no cure and no certain aetiology ,treatment is symptomatic in lay man terms what they complain or comes up they treat ,mostly using steroids ,ace inhibitors ,immune modifying drugs,the most serious complications are respiratory ,Bernie Mac died of respiratory complications ,it affects the eyes ,joints,brains ,many aspects and systemic disease with remissions and relapses ,times well and rested times out of controlled and flared ,i gave a general outlook in brief

  10. QUESTION:
    do you think systemic lupus,and systemic sarcoidosis are much the same in as much as symptoms?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes and many of the symptoms are the same as the symptoms of the real problem -
      which for some at least is chronic infection like chronic lyme disease.Something many patients are never told by their doctors. In general you have to search hard to find doctors who know these things.

  11. QUESTION:
    For an 39 AA male who has serious Sarcoidosis in lungs& a history of smoking- can this turn into lung cancer?
    He has dropped almost 50 pounds in 6 months and has had sleep apnea but this has went away. He is very weak and tired all the time. Problems and pain while sleeping at night. He has been dealing with the lymph nodes and chronic chest pain symptoms. There was a time when he had a severe cough that wouldn't go away. He doesn't like to go to the doctor, so when his doctor said that he needed another chest xray, he didn't go. It's been years since his last chest xray. He smoked for about 15 years, quit for a few years, started again, and now it's been over a year since he last smoked. We believe that he's afraid to hear that he has lung cancer because the Sarcoidosis has spread to his eyes, lungs, and now his bones. His eyes have gotten better, but he looks very sick. At night he breaks out in sweats, and my question is if this sounds like lung cancer or an advancement from Sarcoidosis? Has anyone else known someone's Sarcoidosis to turn into lung cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory, autoimmune disease and is not associated with development of lung cancer, although some of the symptoms may resemble lung cancer in it's advanced stages, especially in stage IV sarcoidosis. It can be a systemic disease causing a lot of pulmonary/respiratory difficulties. Having said that, since this man has a history of smoking, it would not be unthinkable for lung cancer to have developed independent of his sarcoidosis. Certainly, appropriate evaluation by a physician and work up is recommended.

  12. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know of any herbal/natural remedies for Sarcoidosis?
    Hi,
    I am 39 and was diagnosed with Sarcoidosis about 2 years ago. Of late I have felt the symptoms becoming worse again. I was given steroids before but don't like the side effects. Can anyone help me find an effective alternative to prescription medicines?

    • ANSWER:
      I do not have the answer for you but am going to give you a sight to look at. Go to the Encyclopedia of Natural Healing online, or most health food stores have a copy as a reference. Also ask the resident nauropath at Straussherbco.com. I know nothing of your illness but highly reccomend that you start here and then go to your local health food store for reccomended products. Also put a filter on your shower, and use bottled water for everything else. This is available at your local water store. On general health alone this is good advise. Chlorinated water causes more harm than your can realise. Good luck. Harvey.

  13. QUESTION:
    my doctor thinks i may have Sarcoidosis can any one tell me what the symptoms are?
    im 23 and only went to my doctor because my ankle was swollen for about 4 months and nothing seemed to bring it down, the pain isn't that bad i can manage with it. but when i went ot my doctor he scared me by saying i needed a chest x-ray because he thought i may have sarcoidosis and that it is causing arthritis in my left ankle and i never realized myself but the bones in my foot are all loose. i've never had any breathing problems, i do sometimes get bad head aches on my left side of my forehead or a pain in my left eye. im hoping its something minor, but could any one enlighten me on this whole thing thanks in advance:)

    • ANSWER:

  14. QUESTION:
    i have sarcoidosis in my lungs have had it 5 years.?
    im just starting to get pains on the side of my face and cant understand whee it comes from. do anybody knows what symptoms sarcoidosis have on ones head? i cant get much info off the internet.

    • ANSWER:

  15. QUESTION:
    Crazy lung symptoms Can someone please help me?
    I have been diagnosed with sarcoidosis for about 5/yrs now. I am lucky in that I have not progressed to stage 4. But my only concern is that sense iI have had this diag. I have been suffering with my lungs filling very cold on cold days, as well as turning cold during exercise even on warm to hot days.
    Would anyone out there have any idea of what is possibly going on?

    • ANSWER:
      If you have sarcoidosis you really should be regularly visiting a pulmonologist who specializes in lung disorders. Sarcoidosis causes scarring of the major organs including your lungs. See the doctor. You don't mention shortness of breath yet so that is good.

  16. QUESTION:
    Can cardiac sarcoidosis be cured?
    Can cardiac sarcoidosis be cured? Also if anyone could include the possible symptoms of it? A friend of mine was diagnosed with this, and I was curious.

    • ANSWER:
      symptoms include: irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, leg swelling, rarely chest pain.
      treatment usually corticosteroid prednisone and antiinflammatory meds. sometimes patient may be given immune suppressant and antimalarial drugs (methotrexate) for the irregular heart rhythm.

      i hope im able to help :)

  17. QUESTION:
    Does the chest tightness in Sarcoidosis ease??
    I had Sarcoidosis in Feb 2006, although I did have terrible Erythema Nodosum in my legs I didn't have medication, and the symptoms seemed to going in Autumn last year. My eyes and lung capacity was tested and they were fine.

    But now the chest tightness seems to be getting worse which can be painful when coughing or sneezing. I would love to hear what you think and if you've had experiences of your own in how to ease it.

    Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      It can, but the disease can have residual affects such as mild asthma. You may need to use some bronchodilators during high allergy seasons to help or some advair to prevent any bronchospasms.

      The disease can completely resolve, but the fibrotic changes can be permanent and you may have some slight residual affects.

      I would talk to your doctor abou starting on advair or asmanex to control the cough and chest tightness. You probably have some asthma as a result. PFT's may or may not show it completely.

  18. QUESTION:
    does having a mental issue along with a condition help get disability approved?
    i already have proof of my lung condition(sarcoidosis) and many symptoms. i was turned down due to me not getting treatment for depression. i know i am depressed and im going to go to a psychiatrist to prove it. if i get proof im depressed and with my condition will that help me? i have tried not to get disability but i can no longer work. 5 jobs in the last 6 years i keep falling out.

    • ANSWER:
      ABSOLUTELY!!!!!!

  19. QUESTION:
    Sarcoidosis...How do you cope?
    My sister has it and frequently chokes on food. Does anyone have any ways of easing these symptoms?

    • ANSWER:
      I couldn't begin to answer this question but if you type google in toe address bar then sarcoidosis in google search it will give you allot of info good luck

  20. QUESTION:
    Sarcoidosis or not Sarcoidosis?
    The symptoms include chronic dry cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, sesceptability to respiratory disease, chronic low grade fever, and most recently, a possible granuloma above the shin and a rash on the backs of the knees. The "patient" also has anemia, which may contribute to the fatigue and shortness of breath, but her mother was diagnosed with Sarcoidosis.

    • ANSWER:
      To be honest with you i dont know what it means...

  21. QUESTION:
    Is anyone on this site been diagnosed with Sarcoidosis?
    I have what I thought was "heart/chest" pains, but after more than a couple of years, and NO diagnosable heart issues, I've come to realize it's more likely my lungs than heart and have several, but not all of the symptoms...it would be nice to get feedback from someone actually diagnosed with the disease.

    • ANSWER:
      Don't try to diagnosis yourself. Lay people don't do a good job of it at all. Sarcoidosis is a very rare disease, and is not something generally considered when someone complains of chest pains. The lungs are usually not the cause of chest pains. Lung disease is manifested by shortness of breath, cough, sputum production, fever, primarily. You may well just be a "worry wart", someone with an anxiety disorder, who is constantly scared of having a heart attack or other life threatening disease, so you magnify the normal feelings in your chest to the point that you interpret it as chest pains.

      Get your mind off your health. Get out and walk for miles. Get a hobby. Strike up new friendships. Read the Bible and pray to God. GET a LIFE!!!

  22. QUESTION:
    Could I possibly have Sarcoidosis?
    I fit a lot of the symptoms -- always tired, never hungry, sick a lot, shortness of breath, weight loss, fatigue, some aches and pains but not terrible. Also, I have inflammation but in my intestines so I don't know if that helps at all either. My mental history consists of photographic epilepsy, depression, and OCD. Any links to sarcoidosis or any other serious diseases/illnesses? Thanks and HELP!!

    • ANSWER:

      See your Doctor

      What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Sarcoidosis?
      Many people who have sarcoidosis have no symptoms. Often, the condition is discovered by accident only because a person has a chest x ray for another reason, such as a pre-employment x ray.

      Some people have very few symptoms, but others have many.

      Symptoms usually depend on which organs the disease affects.

      Lung Symptoms
      Shortness of breath
      A dry cough that doesn't bring up phlegm (flem), or mucus
      Wheezing
      Pain in the middle of your chest that gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough (rare).
      Lymph Node Symptoms
      Enlarged and sometimes tender lymph nodes—most often those in your neck and chest but sometimes those under your chin, in your arm pits, or in your groin.
      Skin Symptoms
      Various types of bumps, ulcers, or, rarely, flat areas of discolored skin, that appear mostly near your nose, eyes, back, arms, legs, and scalp. They usually itch but aren't painful. They usually last a long time.
      Painful bumps that usually appear on your ankles and shins and can be warm, tender, red or purple-to-red in color, and slightly raised. This is called erythema nodosum (er"i-the'mah nodo'sum). You may have fever and swollen ankles and joint pain along with the bumps. The bumps often are an early sign of sarcoidosis, but they occur in other diseases too. The bumps usually go away in weeks to months, even without treatment.
      Disfiguring skin sores that may affect your nose, nasal passages, cheeks, ears, eyelids, and fingers. This is called lupus pernio (loo'pus per'nio). The sores tend to be ongoing and can return after treatment is over.
      Eye Symptoms
      Burning, itching, tearing, pain
      Red eye
      Sensitivity to light
      Dryness
      Floaters (i.e., seeing black spots)
      Blurred vision
      Reduced color vision
      Reduced visual clearness
      Blindness (in rare cases).
      Heart Symptoms
      Shortness of breath
      Swelling in your legs
      Wheezing
      Coughing
      Irregular heartbeat, including palpitations (a fluttering feeling of rapid heartbeats) and skipped beats
      Sudden loss of consciousness
      Sudden death.
      Joint and Muscle Symptoms
      Joint stiffness or swelling—usually in your ankles, feet, and hands.
      Joint pain.
      Muscle aches (myalgias).
      Muscle pain, a mass in a muscle, or muscle weakness.
      Painful arthritis in your ankles that results from erythema nodosum. It may need treatment but usually clears up in several weeks.
      Painless arthritis that can last for months or even years. It should be treated.
      Bone Symptoms
      Painless holes in your bones.
      Painless swelling, most often in your fingers.
      Anemia that results from granulomas affecting your bone marrow. This usually should be treated.
      Liver Symptoms
      Fever
      Fatigue
      Itching
      Pain in the upper right part of your abdomen, under the right ribs
      Enlarged liver.
      Parotid (pah-rot'id) and Other Salivary Gland Symptoms
      Swelling, which makes your cheeks look puffy
      Excessive dryness in your mouth and throat.
      Blood, Urinary Tract, and Kidney Symptoms
      Increased calcium in your blood or urine, which can lead to painful kidney stones
      Confusion
      Increased urination.
      Nervous System Symptoms
      Headaches.
      Vision problems.
      Weakness or numbness of an arm or leg.
      Coma (rare).
      Drooping of one side of your face that results from sarcoidosis affecting a facial nerve. This can be confused with Bell's palsy, a disorder that may be caused by a virus.
      Paralysis of your arms or legs that results from sarcoidosis affecting your spinal cord.
      Weakness, pain, or a "stinging needles" sensation in areas where many nerves are affected by sarcoidosis.
      Pituitary (pi-tu'i-tar"e) Gland Symptoms (Rare)
      Headaches
      Vision problems
      Weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
      Coma (rare).
      Other Symptoms
      Nasal obstruction or frequent bouts of sinusitis.
      Enlarged spleen, which leads to a decrease in platelets in your blood and pain in your upper left abdomen. Platelets are needed to help your blood clot.
      Sarcoidosis may also cause more general symptoms, including:

      Uneasiness, feeling sick (malaise), an overall feeling of ill health
      Tiredness, fatigue, weakness
      Loss of appetite or weight
      Fever
      Night sweats
      Sleep problems
      These general symptoms are often caused by other conditions. If you have these general symptoms but don't have symptoms from affected organs, you probably do not have sarcoidosis.

  23. QUESTION:
    Sarcoidosis?
    I have a friend who has the lung disease 'Sarcoidosis' for over ten years. Does anyone know someone who has this? If you have this please let me know how you have been coping. (i.e. symptoms, behavior, medicine, etc. What has worked for you?

    • ANSWER:
      I was diagnosed with Sarcoidosis over 2 years ago. Sarcoidosis is considered a lung disease based on the fact that 90% of patients have lung involvment. You can have Sarcoidosis and have no lung involvment at all. My symptoms presented as systemic; fatigue, malaise, low grade fever, joint pain, weakness. I also had inflammation in my ankles with severe pain. A chest X-ray revealed bilateral hilar adenopathy which is a classic picture of Sarcoidosis. Even though these lymph nodes were enlarged, I presented with zero lung symptoms.

      Sarcoidosis can be complicated. Many people have Sarcoidosis and never know it because they have no symptoms. Others have a chronic disease which can be destructive to various organ systems and life threatening.

      The best thing to do to cope with this disease is to understand it. Keep going to Doctors until you find that one that has a strong knowledge of it. I have been to many Doctors who barely know anything about Sarcoidosis.

      Corticosteroid is usually prescribed to control the inflammation caused by Sarcoidosis. This is a very potent drug so be sure your Doctor is certain you need it.

      Based on my own knowledge from research and experience I would recommend keeping yourseld well informed and establishing a good relationship with your Doctor(s). Make sure your Doctor(s) know what they are talking about! Also, it is very important to maintain a healthy life style. If you smoke, quit now!!!! Try to avoid alcohol. Eat healthy and exercise regularly. Your exercise program should be based on your condition. Some Sarcoid patients might have serious organ involvment that would make certain exercise routines dangerous. I cannot stress how much maintaining a positive outlook & reducing stress will help your condition. I know from experience that Sarcoidosis can make life very difficult. No one understands how you feel. Keep a healthy routine in your life and don't stress the little things. Stress is debilitating in healthy people so you can imagine the effects on an individual with Sarcoidosis.

      Good Luck!

      I am not a health care professional so please make sure you listen to a licensed health care professional above all else.

  24. QUESTION:
    Does anyone here have/know about sarcoidosis?
    I was recently diagnosed with hypothyroidism,but I have many other odd symptoms,the most severe ones being a constant dry cough,shortness of breath,dry eyes and blurred vision,joint pain,skin problems and fatigue. I also have a high C-reactive protein level and a higher than normal prolactin level. I suspect sarcoidosis.If you have it or know someone who does,what are your symptoms and what are you taking for it? Also,how were you diagnosed?
    eshires - I have ALL of those symptoms as well.The only inhaler I can use in Maxair. Albuterol makes my heart want to jump out of my chest.I also have to take Mucinex every day because of the chest congestion.I have been tested for everything and have been diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,but these new symptoms just make me think that there is something else going on. I hope that we can find what our problems are and feel normal again someday SOON!
    Eshires - I know! I can't breathe,either! I can't walk my dogs like I would like to.I can go around the block,but that's about it. It's a good thing I have a big yard and that they are older dogs.There is no way I could keep up with a puppy! But I take Benadryl and use a neti pot,too! I haven't felt "normal" for so long that I forget what it is. And I have had allergy testing and I am not allergic to anything exceot for tree pollen,so it isn't my animals,and the last I heard,allergies don't cause tachycardia,skipped beats or peculiar neurological symptoms.

    • ANSWER:
      Hey, I've heard of it but I do not know much about it. I'm sure that you've probably read up a little bit on it but I still wanted to give you this website just in case. It has info about treatment and more.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcoidosis

      I will star for you in case any of my other contacts have any info for you.

  25. QUESTION:
    pregnancy & sarcoidosis advise?
    im 6 weeks pregnant on my 2nd baby (my son is 2). 12 months ago i was diagnosed with sarcoidosis in my lungs. I was very sick for 6 months but as i lost weight my symptoms improved & i was feeling back to my normal self. Also had the help of a symbicort inhaler. Anyway since last week my breathing has become really laboured even with the inhalers. I could normally walk for 20/30 mins pushing a buggy without stoping but now im struggling after 5 minutes. Is this something to do with my pregnancy? Also i found that losing 3 stone majorly improved my breathing with the sarc so i am very worried how the pregnancy weight will affect me as i am still about a stone overweight as it is. Any advice please?

    • ANSWER:
      you need to discuss it with your treating physician
      it is said that many patients improve with pregnancy
      to read more:

      http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/Sarcoidosis/hic_Sarcoidosis_FAQs.aspx

  26. QUESTION:
    I get shortness of breath on exertion. How can I exercise?
    I have sarcoidosis, and one of the many symptoms is shortness of breath. I used to love to hike, and I was a whitewater river guide, so I never thought much about exercise. Now that I've gotten sick, I can't even walk around my college campus without wheezing, AND I'm 5'2" and I weight 198 lbs!! This is getting ridiculous, and I'm developing more health problems from not exercising and from gaining weight. What should I do?

    • ANSWER:
      Start out by doing small amounts of cardio and increase it little by little so your body will get use to it.
      Aslo do some weight machines, they will burn some calories but not cause you to get out of breath.
      You should also think about trying yoga or pilates.

  27. QUESTION:
    I have sarcoidosis and now I am being tested for lupus because of fatigue, rashes on face and upper body.?
    I am taking hyrdoxychloriquine for the sarcoid. My hair has begun to fall out. My skin is exxxtremely dry and itchy. Its painful. Is this a symptom of Lupus?
    If the drs are having problems properly diagnosing & treating me, what should I do? These treatments and meds are expensive! I need relief from the discomforts of the disease. Any suggestions are appreciated

    • ANSWER:

  28. QUESTION:
    i have had various ruptured veins, but my symptoms don't match anything i can google.?
    in the last 2 1/2 years i have had five different veins suddenly swell and burst. i do not have varicose veins and i do not fit the symptoms of deep vein thrombosis. what happens is that i feel sudden pain and pressure (bad pain), and then i can see my blood vessel swelling to multiple times its size, bulging out of my skin. after about five minutes the vein ruptures, leaving me with no more intense pain, just a large painful bruise. first time it happened was in my foot on the top/side near the arch(just a little vein), few months later in my groin(a big one this time), six months later on the side of my hand by my pinky, months later one in my calf (thought i was a goner this time, super painful and massive bruise) and just recently on the underside of my wrist. i do not take birth control pills, am not sedentary and am only 32. i have an auto immune disorder called sarcoidosis. my eleven year old daughter just had a cavernous angioma removed from her brain a couple months ago.
    i have always had very low blood pressure. even when i was pregnant it never went above 110/65. all five ruptured veins have been on my right side.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi ya. You really need to get this checked out this with a specialist. The condition your daughter has is often genitically related, so considering your symptoms it would appear that this may be from your side of the family. Your GP should be referring you to a vascular neurologist for an indepth assessment. I am shocked that since your daugthers event your doctor has not followed this up. You need to get this sorted as the incidence of your illness is increasing as time passes. You obviously have weakened areas in your vascular system - for now they appear to be mostly on the limbs but really until you are fully examined a hidden danger is constantly present.

      I dont want to frighten or worry you, however please get this checked out.

  29. QUESTION:
    Could all the symptoms be connected?
    I am 15 years old, and there's pus coming out of my vagina. It can't be an STD because I have never had any sexual contact, never even kissed a guy........ It all started about 3-4 years ago, about when I hit puberty. I don't think it has anything to do with the period though, pus is coming out all the time, before and after menstruation, it is getting worse though.

    Here are all of the symptoms I have (just in case they are connected, idk):

    swollen lymph nodes on the right side of the neck (started about a year ago)

    superbad hyperhidrosis (armpits, antiperspirants don't help)

    acne (started when i was like 10, still have it)

    fatigue

    chest pain (around the sternum area)

    headaches.

    Could it be sarcoidosis? or maybe hyperthyroidism? (sorry, im self-diagnosing =P)

    • ANSWER:
      I doubt it's pus: if so you should see a doctor. If you have a microscope, see if there are white cells in the discharge.

  30. QUESTION:
    is there anyone on here with sarcoidosis?
    if so what are your symptoms , thank you

    • ANSWER:
      Sarcoidosis affects many parts of your body. What type do you have? My husband has it in his lymph nodes. He has difficulty breathing, carrying heavy objects, some heart palpitations, very tired. You can have it on your skin, around your heart, lungs, eyes. Usually it only affects one area. It does not go away. You need to see a specialist in the area that you have it. (eyes ..go see eye dr, lungs ..see a lung specialist. There is not a "sarcoid" dr. The drug of choice is prednisone to ease the symptoms. It did work but that medicine can give you other issues like diabetes so you should not stay on that long. Plus it is hard to come off of that drug.

  31. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know of Doctors or Hospitals who specialize in Sarcoidosis in New Jersey ?
    Been to a lot of Doctors.
    Called my insurance company for references. The representative had little knowledge of Sarcoidosis. (That is being kind)

    Main symptom was palpitations.
    Initially went to the emergency room because my heart was skipping beats and I could not catch my breath.
    The doctors did a cardiac catheterization. All clear.
    Could not figure out why I have the palpitations.
    Did an Echo cardiogram. Injection fraction is ok.

    Had a CAT Scan. Showed Enlarged Lymph Nodes.
    Had Thoracic surgery 2 months ago to biopsy a Lymph Node.
    (Confirmed the Sarcoidosis)

    Not showing up in the lungs (yet) But I still get winded.
    I am always tired.

    Just had blood work again last week . Everything was "normal"

    I don't feel normal.

    Any referrals would be greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      Mt Sinai Hospital in NYC is the best.....You need to find a lung dr (pulmonolgist) that has seen it before. They treat your symptoms, usually with prednisone. There is NOT a Sarc Dr ...you have to go to the dr where your symptons are occuring. (heart dr if it is affecting your heart ..etc...)Mt Sinai has a sarc center for a second opinion. Might be worth the trip...

  32. QUESTION:
    Anyone else have sarcoidosis?
    I have this lung condition and i just wanted to see if anyone else had experience of it and if they have the same symptoms? I just get a pain in the left side of my chest the whole time, and find it quite a difficult thing to live with...

    • ANSWER:
      My brother has sarcoidosis but he doesn't have it on his lungs but on his spleen. He is managing to live with the condition although he gets abdominal pains quite often. It took him years to get a diagnosis as it is quite rare. I THINK he takes some kind of anti-inflammatory pill for it, but I'm not sure. There are quite a lot of resources on the Internet about sarcoidosis if you type it into a search engine.

  33. QUESTION:
    what disease(s) could this be?
    liver, lymph node, and spleen enlargement or inflammation in a 14 year old female.
    it isn't due to mononucleosis and i hardly think it could be sarcoidosis [as there are no signs of the other sarcoidosis symptoms].
    please tell me all the possible diseases.
    don't tell me to see a doctor. it isn't a personal thing.

    please and thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      It could be another autoimmune disorder. Disorders like Systemic Lupus Erythematosus could cause swelling in organs and glands during "flares." Although many autoimmune disorders usually show signs after age 20.

  34. QUESTION:
    My husband has Sarcoidosis?
    After suffering with a severe dry cough for three weeks in June 2005, he was sent for a chest x-ray which showed granular shadows. he then underwent 8 months of testing. He had countless x-rays and blood tests, a bronchoscopy (which showed nothing) and finally a lung biopsy at Papworth, which gave the docs the information needed to diagnose him.
    He had months off work while the docs tried to find out what was wrong in case it was work related - he is a welder, and the factory he works in has no extractors - the only ventilation offered is an open door!!!!!!!!!!
    The docs don't seem to think that it is work related now, but when he returned to work in March 2006, the symptoms returned, even though there is no change in the condition.
    Is there a link between working in a dusty atmosphere and Sarcoid? Is there any financial help available for sufferers - my husband is off work again! Is there any light at the end of the tunnel for sufferers at all?

    • ANSWER:
      Work related illness? Yes seek legal advice. Have a look on the ACAS website they can advise on there what to do next.

      Its obvious he cant go back as a result and if he does it will aggrivate it more. I dont know enough about the illness but from a work point of view he can take the company to court. found a website for you to look at also about the illness. Hope this helps a little. did he or was he offered any form of face mask at work?

  35. QUESTION:
    For anyone who has been diagnosed with Sarcoidosis?
    I was diagnosed by blood work and chest x rays over the summer. I went back in September for a check up with the pulmonologist and had a ct scan of my chest. He said my lymph nodes were still enlarged in my chest but hadn't changed so he didn't want to do anything as far as treatment with steroids. He said to see him back in a year unless I was having difficulty breathing.

    Well 2 weeks ago I got a bad cold that lead into a sinus infection. The dr gave me a strong antibiotic, and all seemed to be fine except I still had my cough which was productive. So I called the Doctor again and he gave me hyrocodine for the cough which does help but I can only take it at night when my daughter is asleep because I get super tired. So I'm coughing like non stop all day and it's a dry cough now, not productive, but my throat still feels a little bit slimy.

    So anyone with sarcoidosis how was your cough treated? If at all, that is pretty much the only symptom I have now besides being extremely tired, My chest isn't bothering me any more. I originally went to the er over the summer because it felt like I had air trapped in my chest and i couldn't get enough air. It's really scary for me to think I could possible have this cough for the rest of my life. Anyone with experience, or a nurse or doctor that can help?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi there. I too have been diagnosed with Sarcoidosis a few years ago... It has affected my lungs, skin and lymph nodes thru-out my body. I am not on any meds for it either. I do notice when I get a cold my cough seems to linger for what feels like ages. I really doubt you will have the cough the rest of your life! I use organic apple cider vinegar daily and I take oil of oregano daily-5 drops a day, if I feel a cold or anything coming on I take up to 25 drops a day. For me I have found it helpful. I personally want to stay as far away from steroids. etc as I can! I feel really healthy for the most part.

      If it is something that really worries you I would try to get an appointment with your respiroligist/pulmonologist and be more aggressive.

  36. QUESTION:
    PLEASE HELP. Please help me with these symptoms..?
    Im age 16
    Femal
    157cm tall
    7.5 stone
    Do sport 5 days a week, eat healthily
    My imediate family members have liver disease,crohns disease,graves disease,sarcoidosis & type 2 diabetes.
    - I have such bad skin on my hands, its cracks, bleeds, generaly tight,sore. I don't wash my hands anymore than anyone else, ive tried using cotton gloves and hand creams.
    - I have an unbarable amount of discharge for the last 2 months
    - Periods are never anywhere near the same time each month
    - I keep going from eating loads, to eating not much.
    - I'm generally more tired than usual
    - Feel immensly sick after most meals
    The Docters didn't really know what was going on.

    Any Ideas would be just fab, could really do with some help please !!!????

    • ANSWER:
      It could be a hormonal issue, with underlying symptoms from another problem, if you're doc hasn't considered it and is out of ideas, you may want to mention it, and see if they can reconsider.

  37. QUESTION:
    Can you tell me?
    Ok, well... recently i've been having alot of the symptoms of Sarcoidosis, but i've also been having other problems... i shake ALOT and my heart rate is up like all the time and having my veins pulsating all over my body (feeling like my hair is standing up kinda) and having tingling sensations in my finger tips and i think in my toes too. i am way too uneasy now. and from the symptom of the eye floaters, things look like they're moving at the corners of my eyes and sometimes when i just walk to another spot (maybe because of different lighting settings) they seem to move in front of my eyes. they are like alota clear hair strands everywhere. plus including the foggy/smokey vision. ok... and... i like hear voices and sounds sometimes next to or like in another room or outside. its kinda weird, i can hear or sometimes think of a sound and it will repeat over and over if i want and i will seem to hear it. my MAIN meds are FLUVOXETINE. FLUVOXAMINE, and METHYLPHENIDATE.

    • ANSWER:
      Go to the doctors like right a way. Thats the only person who can truely tell you what is going on. I hope you get better. GOOD LUCK!!!!!!!!!!

  38. QUESTION:
    Are the medical terms used in House M.D. real?
    The terms that gregory house uses in the movie... are they real?

    like adavan and epinephrine for seizures, and vicodin for pain, all the other diagnostics and symptoms, are they really used like they were in actual situations?

    or do they rely on the fact that viewers have absolutely no clue about what they are talking and doing over there. they say things like sarcoidosis, lupus and other diseases... are they really associated to the symptoms that they find? and the treatments as well, with interferon and plasma(something)???

    • ANSWER:
      Yes. Here`s a site you`ll find interesting. It`s a medical review of all the House episodes.
      http://www.politedissent.com/house_pd.html

  39. QUESTION:
    Medical Mystery PLEASE HELP?
    My father in law has been in the hospital for a week. They have done a CT of his back, MRI of his brain & Spine, and taken a biopsy from his lungs. He went in originally complaining of back pain and shortness of breath. He had a cold like cough for 3 months that his family practitioner had tried to kill with antibiotics in 3 different visits (not sure of the first 2 doses, they were taken 2 times a day for 7 days, and the 3rd time it was Cyproflo, taken for 10 days). The first 2 doses didn't make a difference, the cypro seemed to work some but the cough came back a week later. The family practitioner had said it was just an infection. When my father-in-law came in for his back and breathing, they did the scans listed above. CT showed swollen lymph nodes down his spine. They immediately assumed it was lymphoma. They did the biopsy to be sure, but a cancer doctor even came and said he was 99.999% sure it was lymphoma. They then did the MRI on his brain to be sure. The results came back and his brain looked fine. They then did the MRI on his back, and they see the swollen lymph nodes, but nothing else. Both doctors have come in and literally said "I don't know what is wrong with you, I'm at a loss". Now they are just trying to stabilize his pain, which is excruciating, until the biopsy results come back on monday. They did say, however, that he has emphysema, but that it would not contribute to his back pain. He was a smoker for about 20 years or more, but he quit and has not smoked in about 10 years. He is 50 years old. His recent activity includes trying out 2 different ED drugs (Viagra & Levitra), and going to 2 weddings in the span of 3 weeks.

    Other symptoms that were present are his hands were tingly before he ever went to the hospital. Now he can barely open his hands and he can't feel his feet. Also, he has sever weakness in his legs. He delivers medical equipment for work, lifting as much as 1,500 lbs at a time. He now barely has the strength to squeeze a persons fingers.

    Also he has started using an inhaler since he has gone to the hospital. He does breathing treatments a few times a day and is on oxygen 24/7.

    On Sept 16th 2010, he was in good health. Smiling, laughing, and living well. Around Oct 3rd he was suddenly in awful health and no one knows what is wrong with him.

    Oh, he mentioned once that he has never been allergic to anything and that around the time he got the cough, he felt like he had seasonal allergies.

    If anyone out there thinks they may know what this is, or has any suggestions please help.

    My husband thought it might be sarcoidosis, because there is an xray of my father in laws lungs from 2002 and another in 2010 (aug), and there are tendrals coming from the lymph nodes that obviously got more dense and spread out, but they say that is the emphysema. We looked at the list of symptoms for the sarcoidosis and he fits every single one. He only fit 3 symptoms for lymphoma.

    Again, please help.

    • ANSWER:
      Go with your gut. If you think he has sarcoidosis, then do get your father in law tested to check if he has that.
      Emphysema i don't think it is. I was thinking cancer, but it's definitely not that.
      Go to as many doctors as possible. Get blood work done, he may have something in his blood that may be key.

      I'm sorry to hear this... but don't lose hope. There's an answer, you just gotta find it.
      There is light at the end of the tunnel. I apologize that i couldn't be much of help :/ after all, i'm not a doctor yet.

  40. QUESTION:
    Do i have coeliac / celiac disease?
    Sorry in advance if this is tmi. I was diagnosed with sarcoidosis last yr (its an autoimmune disease that affects my lungs) Ive been having stomach & bowel issues for about 6 yrs now & after doing some research ive found that there is a link between coeliac (celiac) disease & sarcoidosis.
    These are my symptoms if anyone can shed some light (btw 3 aunts & 2 cousins & 1 grandmother all have celiac disease)
    * constipation
    *bad stomach pains
    * bad gas
    *passing mucous either during BM or on its own while trying to have a BM
    *fatigue
    *grumbling stomach (not due to hunger)
    *severe reaction to oats, in terrible pain within an hour of eating anything with oats
    *bread & pasta also cause problems & some breakfast cereals
    I am currently 16 wks pregnant & symptoms have gotten alot worse, Is there anyway of me finding out if i am celiac? I presume i cant get tests done (besides blood tests) while pregnant? Any ideas please as its really getting me down! Thanks :-)

    • ANSWER:
      This is such a clear picture you hardly need a test! The simplest thing to do is to stop eating anything with wheat in it. It sounds like a gluten problem rather than just wheat, so cut out oats and rye as well. Get used to reading lists of ingredients because wheat crops up everywhere - in OXO cubes for example, and in some tinned soups.You can buy gluten free bread and rolls in Tescos. Nobody says they taste nice but they are not so bad toasted, and it is worth it because of how much better you feel. If you look in Tesco you'll find a range of gluten free foods, probably right next to the wholefoood section. There are several breakfast cereals that are fine when you get used to the change. (Mesa flakes are lovely) You can also get gluten free pasta, and flour so you can make your own cakes - buy a tube of xanthan gum and add a teaspoonful to each 8oz flour. I have been doing this since Christmas and honestly i feel like a new person. It is well worth the inconvenience so give it a try. You can have as much rice and potato as you want - I found that cooking a few extra new potatoes at meal times left me with some cold ones to snack on at supper time.

  41. QUESTION:
    Do i have coeliac(celiac) disease?
    Sorry in advance if this is tmi. I was diagnosed with sarcoidosis last yr (its an autoimmune disease that affects my lungs) Ive been having stomach & bowel issues for about 6 yrs now & after doing some research ive found that there is a link between coeliac (celiac) disease & sarcoidosis.
    These are my symptoms if anyone can shed some light (btw 3 aunts & 2 cousins & 1 grandmother all have celiac disease)
    * constipation
    *bad stomach pains
    * bad gas
    *passing mucous either during BM or on its own while trying to have a BM
    *fatigue
    *grumbling stomach (not due to hunger)
    *severe reaction to oats, in terrible pain within an hour of eating anything with oats
    *bread & pasta also cause problems & some breakfast cereals
    I am currently 16 wks pregnant & symptoms have gotten alot worse, Is there anyway of me finding out if i am celiac? I presume i cant get tests done (besides blood tests) while pregnant? Any ideas please as its really getting me down! Thanks :-)

    • ANSWER:
      A single screen blood test, a serum transglutaminase, can exclude the condition.

  42. QUESTION:
    is it dangerous?
    i have sarcoidosis, an autoimmune disorder. I have recently been in contact with a friend with shingles. I never had chickenpox as a child, and have been told that i could get it now, and it could be nasty due to my autoimmune disorder. my friend has only just been diagnosed with shingles, and i have given her a hug and kiss before knowing this. what symptoms do i need to look out for if i do get chickenpox, and how soon should i see my gp. and am i worrying for nothing.

    • ANSWER:
      When it comes to health, a worry is never for nothing, so your question is not foolish at all.

      Why not see your doctor today for a wellness visit and pose your questions there? Most of us here wouldn't really know what your chances are of contracting chicken pox and it would relieve your mind.

      Good health to you!

  43. QUESTION:
    What could it mean if I've had swollen lymph nodes for over 3 years?
    I am a 26 year old female. I have had a swollen node in my armpit for over 3 years, one in my groin that has been swollen for over 5 years, and nodes in my neck that have been swollen for about 3 years.

    In 2006, I was diagnosed with mono. Months after it had supposedly gone away, the node in the right side of my neck was over 3cm long & still growing, so I saw a surgeon & he was concerned about cancer and removed it immediately...it was examined by pathology and was benign. 4 months later, I was still not entirely healthy and had my tonsils removed.

    Over the last few years, I am still tired quite a bit, sweat a lot and still have the swollen nodes. The one in my groin hurts even when I do not touch it, and the one in my armpit is very tender to the touch, but the ones in my neck to do not bother me.

    I've had spleen & liver scans that came back fine, blood tests that came back fine, but this is still concerning me. Over the last couple years I still have days where I run a low grade fever for about a day. My doctor always puts me on antibiotics (which don't ever take down the size of the nodes or cure the other symptoms). He has also done a chest xray to check for sarcoidosis and that came back clean.

    My aunt has lupus & a host of other auto-immune diseases and my great grandmother died very young of rheumatoid arthritis.

    I have been to a ridiculous number of doctors who keep telling me that there is absolutely 100% nothing wrong with me. I've also noticed an increasing number of tiny red pin-point spots on my chest, stomach & thighs. I've always had one on my chest for years, but the others are new.

    I need a real answer, I need help. I am so tired of making doctor appointments that lead me nowhere.
    I have had the one in my groin and armpit checked, my gyno said the one in my armpit could be due to the hormones in my birth control, so I stopped taking it and the size and tenderness of the node never changed. The one in my groin has been checked by my primary care and a surgeon. The surgeon said nothing to worry about, it's not a hernia or something else, just a permanently swollen node. My concern is that over the last couple months it is becoming increasingly painful...
    Also, I am 5'6". My normal weight is around 118-120...over the last couple months I have dropped to about 113 without trying. I don't know if I should be concerned about that as well or not. I have not had any appetite loss and eat full meals regularly...?

    • ANSWER:
      Please ; get your thyroid gland check ;; I know a man who is just 35 and like you had swollen lymph for years and like you he was diagnostic for mono and like you saw a myriad of doctors ; for finally in last oct to be said ; that his thyroid gland was full of cancer [ Doctors never check this gland ; especially when you are young ] so you have to ask ; OH maybe its not your thyroid ; but at least you will know for sure about the thyroid ; its just a simple blood test

  44. QUESTION:
    ~~Please help diagnose me!!! extensive bloodwork with no abnormal results...SO FRUSTRATING!!!~~?
    I have MANY symptoms pointing to something systemic, connective tissue involved or auto immune... especially similar to lupus, mixed connective tissue disease, scleroderma, dermomysotitis, sarcoidosis, lyme disease,lymphoma, skin cancer etc.........all blood tests normal so far accept slightly low blood sugar and 1positive towards lyme 9but you need a few positive to go in that direction according to dr's.... so does this not make any sense? shouldn't blood work show some markers of disease especially if i have symptoms of this severity??? or are there somethings you can just never know!?? ...................so confused!!!!
    symptoms vary greatly and im getting no def answers after switching dr's time and again seeing specialists and researching ,myself(which is relentless)
    i have symptoms of:
    Renaud's syndrome, alopecea, circulatory problems(painfull swollen vessels causing hives!broken blood vessels), skin problems(acne, wounds wont heal, blood vessels leaving marks, hives), hard lymph nodes in groin as well as swollen tender lymph nodes EVERYWHERE!, weird lump type feeling inside throat(went to ENT saw rawness w/ scope but no answers) itchyness(especially scalp), DRY SKIN, W/ PURPLE ROUGH PATCHES OVER KNUCKLES THAT SOMETIMES ULCERATE, shiny tight skin on hands, many oral changes (pale coloring in several areas, red sore like marks,white lines that come and go, inflammation under tongue and on the sides in the back of tongue and inside cheeks, bumpy lining of cheeks and where my gums connect to my bottom lip w/ pronounced veins, extremely dry mouth w/ white coating--not Candida's and its almost like my tongue and cheeks are bigger or my mouth is smaller bc i get teeth marks on my tongue and have been noticing the inside of my cheeks are in the way and i bite them more often) also: swollen pain full knees and ankles(tested neg forRA), GASTRITIS(after endoscopy), heavy periods w/ blood clots, swollen vulva and cervix(cervix has cysts that have grown rapidly)
    Also ive noticed that the structures of my face have changed___ALL OF A SUDDEN !! i cant smile the way i used to my eyes are more buldging like and the creases in my face are diminishing!! its starting to cause depression and anxiety about leaving the house... please help
    ~~~tested neg for :LYME, RA, CELIAC, HIV, CLAMYDEA, GONORRHEA, STREP, O AND P(STOOLS), ALL BASIC CBC AND BLOOD WORK NORMAL!
    I DO HAVE HYPOTHYROID AND IN 1995 I HAD A LARGE BENIGN TUMOR REMOVED FROM THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN MY CHEST

    • ANSWER:
      demand cat scan for poss sarcoidosis in lymph nodes

  45. QUESTION:
    Help please, only 13 with lots of joint pain?
    So my hips, knees, diners, wrists, ankles and toes all hurt in the joints. It is mainly my hips and knees though, my hips constantly aching and my knees hurtin when I walk. I am not overweight. I had a "flare up" and had a feet twice with increased pain and a feeling of just not being well. I have had no other symptoms. I am on Aleve twice a day which helps a little, ibuprofen and Tylenol doesn't work a bit. The doctor is looking at jra, lupus and sarcoidosis. I have had blood tests and all are normal but the sarcoidosis, but the tests can all be normal or abnormal despite whatever I have so it tells me virtually nothing. I have an appointment with a pediatric rheumatologist in February but thr is a long time does anybody know what I have?

    • ANSWER:
      it sounds like early onset arthritis. there are dozens of diffrent kinds but only a couple that cant be found in blood tests. do a google search for pressure test for fibromyalgia and ask one of your friends to help you. the test consists of haveing someone push on places on your body and if you get pain in enough places you have it. you cant just look at the places and say i dont have pain there cause when someone pushes on it you may get pain that you didnt relize was there.

  46. QUESTION:
    suggested course of action for Mediastinal Lymphodenopathy?
    Age 54

    A Current diagnosis

    I have done a Chest X ray followed by a CT Scan

    Lymphnodes are enlarged and the conclusion from CT Scan is that it is Mediastinal Lymphodenopathy

    I have also done ACE test and the reading is 47 mg/IUL

    I have no symptoms of pain , coughing, weight loss ; though I get tired nowadays may be more I am not walking regularly and not fit

    B Other parameters

    Iam 54 yrs old male - height 5' 10" ,weight - 88 kgs

    I am a hypertensive – take daily 2 Aten 25 tablets and 1 Telma 40
    I took a MRI in oct 2007 – showed lacunar infract --take Clopilet 75 mg

    My cholestrol levels have been high --My Triglyceride levels are elevated -above 200 – I take Storvas EZ

    My Uric acid is at 8 ,Urea at 40 and S.Creatinine at 1.7 - have been asked to control this

    C Suggested course by Chest physicians ; for A above

    1 Some specialists advise that I should do a CT guided biopsy –

    Radiologist had advised that Contrast had to be used to be able to locate the node tissue , which in my case is not advisable due to creatinine levels.

    Therefore Chest physicians advise that success not guaranteed as the lymphnodes in lungs may not be located easily –( they could , if possible locate a node in the neck )

    2 Another opinion is that we leave it as it is and do a scan after 3 months ( Chest X Ray one year back also showed some opacity and since there are no symptoms , may be there is no major cause for worry )

    3 Do a PET CT scan

    D Questions /advise

    What would you suggest as the course of action ?

    Is PET CT a good procedure establish with certainty whether it is Sarcoidosis or any other disease

    What could be the underlying disease ( TB, Infection, Lymphoma , Sarcoidosis ) based on A and B above

    Appreciate your medical advice

    • ANSWER:
      I don't give medical advice and I am not a doctor. I don't know what other tests they have done but some can give clues on what it might be.

      An asymptomatic individual with bilateral hilar adenopathy with erythema nodosum or uveitis goes more along with sarcoidosis is my understanding according to what I am reading.

      The chest x ray and PPD can give clues to the presence of TB but the ACE is normal and any cause of granulomas (TB, fungal, sarcoid) would give an elevated ACE level with the exception of HIV patients. I presume they did an HIV test also.

      In terms of infection they can do EBV, CMV, toxoplasmosis, HIV serology along with others especially if they find atypical lymphocytes on the blood smear.

      A CBC can reveal atypical reactive lymph's along with abnormal cells of acute and chronic leukemia and rarely lymphoma cells.

      Staging of lymphomas does involve other blood work that can include; an ESR for prognostic reasons along with screening for lupus etc; An alkaline phosphatase for bone involvement; Liver enzymes for that involvement; LDH calcium albumin for tumor mass assessment; BUN creatinine for renal involvement.

      Of concern is the latter of elevated BUN creatinine and if that elevation is recent or if it's a chronic elevation. If it's a recent finding then imaging studies of the kidney should be undertaken. SLE lupus can also yield abnormal renal function.

      It looks like you are in a bind. It would be nice to find an accessible lymph node for biopsy if one can be found.

      Good luck

  47. QUESTION:
    questions the doctors cant answer.?
    i have a long long list of disabaling symptoms im not going to list them all it would take up 50 pages if i did. before i go any farther. i wanna say i have never ben sick a day in my entire life untill i got whatever illness it is i have today. going on ten months now cant get out of bed without having severe cardiac pvc's anyway back of track. before all this started i developed severe costochondritis (inflamation of the connecting tissue of the ribs) now the doctors say the dont know. i am having cardiac pvc's so violentley they knock me to the ground and rob all the air out of my lungs. it feels like sombody hit mee in the chest with a baseball bat then punched me in the throught. its the strangest scariest sensation ive ever felt. these events have triggers ventricular tachycardia. after having one of these for ever heart beat for 4 or o more beats. ather times i nearly pass out. most pvc's are followd by a pause. not mine the pause usaly comes first. my heart beat so hard somtimes you can watch me bounce slightley in bed. and if i sit i slightley rock because of the incredible strangth of my heart beats. they move me litaraly. its like my heart is being sqeezed. i fit all the symptoms for pericarditis. (inflamation of the outter lining of the heart) doctors cant find evedince that i have this. i am or i guess was an athlete. i know some sthleats have diffrent cardiac behaveior than an average person. if i infoct do have pericardidtis would the fact that i was an athlete have made my heart fit enough to hide the effects of this condition. second of all. doctors tell me that it is impossible for costochondritis to spread. well i know in some situation like sarcoidosis. inflamation can spread anyware. could my extream levels of inflamation of my ribs ribs have spread to more vital areas such as the aorta or vegal nerve area. poosible causing pressure or unusaul stimulation to any vital area that could potentialy trigger pvc's. im relly going outside the box here. doctors cant figure this out so it cant be an average normal everyday condition. i think rare conditions prompt rare diagnosis. anyway. are these idea even fesable. does it make since that costochondritis worsaning for over 2 years get to the point ware cardiac symptoms can occur. i know these idea are i little out thare. but nobody can figure this out. unlikley yes. but impossible? what do you guys think. give me some ideas i can bounch of the doctors. anything.

    • ANSWER:
      I think you need to go to a cardiologist and have he/she identify if this is heart caused or if your costochondritis has caused a lung/heart muscle spasm situation which could be solved with a muscle relaxant.

  48. QUESTION:
    what disease, or sickness do i have?
    i have a lot of medical symptoms ive had a couple of diagnosis but i know their is a big picture here are my symptoms:
    small granules around my eyes, skin rashes, pimples on my thighs, arms. stomach aches (IBS), Sarcoidosis, pelvic pain, blood in urine, degenerative disk in spine, small spine tumor, sciatica, chest pains, cough, GERD, Always tired, Chronic Insomnia, Depression, constipation, menopause, bloated stomach.
    can someone tell me what is wrong with me, and how do i fix it?
    i forgot blood in urine

    • ANSWER:
      Go to mayoclinic.com and then "symptom checker."

      Check all symptoms that apply. webmd.com is also very good.

      Have you been to a doctor?

  49. QUESTION:
    My neurologist is just as stumped as every other doctor I've seen--I need answers!?
    So I have had extreme fatigue for about 4 years now but my symptoms really started at the end of July when I started experiencing double vision-it has been constant and it is now October 10th and I still have it. I had left facial weakness for about a week but that went away on its own. I also have headaches, weakness in my hands and feet and tingling in different parts of my hands and arms. I have had 4 MRIs done which were all negative for MS but then when I had my spinal tap done it came back positive for MS with 13 oligoclonal bands. My neurologist is not 100% sure if it is MS since the MRIs were negative. When my blood work came back my ace enzyme was high indicating that it could be sarcoidosis but I'm not sure about that one. My grandmother does has sarcoidosis but how do you differentiate between the two? I'm going to see a rheumatologist but I am tired of the run around--this will be doctor #7.

    • ANSWER:
      If you can't find an answer, I would explore into the possibility of EMF's contributing to your problems. Professor Magda Havas at Trent U. in Canada thinks that EMF's may contribute to the symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

      Check out:
      * External radiation from new wireless smart meters: http://www.emfsafetynetwork.org
      * External radiation from cell towers: http://www.celltowerdangers.
      * Internal radiation from household wireless appliances: http://www.wireless-precaution.com
      * Building Biology has experts in EMF and indoor air quality: http://www.buildingbiology.net

  50. QUESTION:
    Could it be a wrong diagnosis?
    I have been recently diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder sarcoidosis. The first biopsy came back inconclusive, then i had another biopsy done. I just got the medical record/diagnosis and it doesn't say sarcoidosis on it but that's what they say I have. It just says negative for lymphoma and bacteria, etc in medical terminology. Now... I have had all the symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis. At first I had severe pain in chest, then the pain eventually went in my left arm and it was throbbing, also in my ear too. Now for a few weeks my lower left leg has been sore and twitching, like my muscles are twitching i can see it. This all sounds like DVT? Could i have been misdiagnosed? I am going back to my doctor and hopefully get some more test because i don't like the pain i'm getting in my lower legs.
    I've had cramping in my leg many times and if this is DVT, i've already had a pulmonary embolism it seems. I even get sharp pain in my head and feel lightheaded.

    • ANSWER:
      The symptoms of sarcoidosis can vary greatly, depending on which organs are involved. Most patients initially complain of a persistent dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include:

      Tender reddish bumps or patches on the skin.
      Red and teary eyes or blurred vision.
      Swollen and painful joints.
      Enlarged and tender lymph glands in the neck, armpits and groin.
      Enlarged lymph glands in the chest and around the lungs.
      Nasal stiffness and hoarse voice.
      Pain in the hands, feet or other bony areas due to the formation of cysts (an abnormal sac-like growth) in bones.
      Kidney stone formation.
      Enlarged liver.
      Development of abnormal or missed beats (arrhythmias), inflammation of the covering of the heart (pericarditis) or heart failure.
      Nervous system effects, including hearing loss, meningitis, seizures or psychiatric disorders (for example, dementia, depression, psychosis).

      You must have some symptoms or other test results that are leading your doctor to this diagnosis. I would suggest sitting down with him and asking him how/why he came to this conclusion. If you are dissatisfied with his answers, seek a second opinion. Don't assume DVT is your problem simply because you have symptoms associated with DVT. Your symptoms also match those of sarcoid disease. Good luck.


Antibody Test

As we mentioned in previous articles, infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to term. It effects over 5 millions couple alone in the U. S. and many times more in the world. Because of unawareness of treatments, only 10% seeks help from professional specialist. In this article, we will discuss what is female infertility Antisperm antibody test cc

I. Definition
The antisperm antibody test is one of procedure which helps to see the antigens of the immune system function toward sperm invasion through blood test. If the immune system recognized or not the sperm as the foreign object, it will produces white blood cells to kill them.

II. Procedure
Blood is withdrawn from a vein in the arm of the infertile female in the clinic laboratory and is to analyzed by immunologic infertility specialist.
III. Diagnosis
The test uses a sample of sperm and adds a substance that binds only to the test sperm.
Semen sample causes the immune system response in either the man's or woman's body. If there is an injure somewheres in the body or inflammation caused by irregular cell adhesion or implants such as endometriosis or sexual transmitted diseases infection which may stimulate the production of white blood. The white blood cells can damage or kill sperm if a high number of sperm antibodies is found leading to immunologic infertility.
Women may have an allergic reaction to her partner's semen and make sperm antibodies leading to faultily recognizing the sperm as foreign invasion, thereby producing high a mount of antibody to kill them leading to infertility. This kind of immune response is not fully understood and happens only to small percentage of infertility couple. It is said that this kind of abnormal function can be treated by controlling the allergic reaction if the causes are found.

For the best pregnancy self help program review, please visit
http://bestfertility.blogspot.com/
For series of Infertility Articles, please visit
http://fertility-infertility.blogspot.com/

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Does a negative Hep B surface antibody test mean i have no current infection with the virus?
    I had my test done for Hep B surface antibody and it says it is >5 titres per unit, which means antibodies have not been produced in the blood. Am i correct?
    Also how long does it take to produce antibodies against this virus?
    i have not taken any immunization before. Would my hep B surface antibodies in the blood be higher if i had come into contact with infection before? also how long does it take for antibodies to show if i have been infected?

    • ANSWER:
      Negative hep B antibody means you do not have immunity to hep B. If hep B surface antigen is negative, there is no current infection. What is your iummune status? After 3 doses of hep B vaccine, your titre must be >10 units per litre. The titre can fall after some time, but when the body encounters the virus, it will start producing antibodies again. Therefore, a booster dose is not required for hep B vaccine. If the titre is < 10 units per litre soon after completing 3 doses, you need an extra dose.

  2. QUESTION:
    where can I get antibody test in Califorina?
    My RE doctor told me that I might have antibody which cause me to have miscarriage. She suggested me to get some blood tests. But, I have a hard time to find the lab where they do antibody test. If you have done that before, can you tell me the address and the cost?

    • ANSWER:
      she should have written up a referral or even called the place to have this done for you, most doctor offices around my neck of the woods have their own built in lab place where they draw blood then send it off, then you go back to the doctor once the results are in

  3. QUESTION:
    How Accurate is the antibody test at 60 days? How long is seroconversion window period?
    its been 60 days now and i tested negative on the standard hiv antibody test. i also took the western blot test and came out negative on that too. Are there any chances that i might still be hiv positive after theses tests. They did say i had a serious Genito urinary Infection. i have been having headaches and my lymph nodes have been swollen for about a month now. i have wet coughs occasional back and nipple pains my tounge has white coating on it. i have been on antibiotics for about a month now. could all these be symptoms of the GU infection or should i still be worried about Hiv . How long would seroconversion take place. the probable exposure date was august 19th

    • ANSWER:
      I believe that false negatives are possible. It seems that you have a lot of issues going on - and while I'm not sure and certainly not a doctor, I would say that it would be kind of early to be exhibiting these signs and have them be HIV related. Swollen lymph nodes can be related to infections, and if you have a GU infection, it could have spread and gotten into your LNs. Wet coughs - are you a smoker? Don't know about the back and nipple pain. The coating on the tongue sounds like thrush - and it can be a result of HIV or excessive antibiotic use. Again, though, I'm not sure it would show up so quickly after exposure.

      Please understand that what I'm giving you is a lay person's understanding of the disease and its manifestations. I know a little bit about thrush because I've had it (post-surgery antibiotics were the cause of mine). I know this must be a horribly terrifying time for you, and trust me I really feel for you. I've been married for almost 8 years now, together almost 10, and prior to that I wasn't a choirgirl. So I had my worries too.

      The best thing for you to do is contact your doctor or health department and have them *sit down with you* as you discuss your concerns. They will be far better able to ease your mind than anyone on Yahoo answers who can pretend to know what they're talking about will.

      I wish you the best.

  4. QUESTION:
    What does my antibody test results mean?
    My test results came back low for all of these antibody test: Lymph, SM, RNP, SSA, SSB, Centromere, Scleroderma IgG Ab, Jo 1, Ribosomal RNP, Chromatin, ANA and Rheumatoid Factor. My neuro ordered these test but I don't see her for 3 more months and I'm curious as to what that means. I assume they're not too bad since her office didn't call me in for an earlier appointment.

    • ANSWER:
      William is right. If you had something wrong with you, then they for sure would tell you way in advance. Unless of course, they are looking to get sued? But I doubt that :)

  5. QUESTION:
    Could you detect different viruses in just one antibody test?
    For example, I have blood test and subject for antibody test. Will the doctors detect different viruses in just one antibody test? ex. Dengue Virus, and aids virus

    • ANSWER:
      Once they take a blood sample, they can test it for a bunch of different things, if they choose. Each virus requires a different test, and they usually only do the tests the doctor orders. They need you to sign a special consent form if they test for HIV.

  6. QUESTION:
    When doing an ELISA antibody test for anthrax, what reasons could there be for a positive test?
    ...if someone DOES NOT have the disease, and the test turns positive anyway, what are some reasons for this in terms of antibodies and antigens?

    Also, why would you need to assay your samples in a triplicate and wash the testing wells after every step?

    • ANSWER:
      1. They have been vaccinated for anthrax.

      2. They have been exposed to the anthrax bacillus and have circulating antibodies to it; you don't need to have had the disease for this to occur.

      3. They have had the disease, but so mildly they did not know it. Common for dairy workers.

      4. False positive due to binding of the primary antibody to a cross-reacting protein.

      Triplicate assays--->better accuracy as random errors are averaged out.

      Wash wells---> lower background noise from non-specific binding of the antibody in the assay.

  7. QUESTION:
    I had heptatitis C antibody test last week and result came with negative. I have some doubt. on it?
    I had a cup of tea 2 hours before blood drawn for test. Is fasting required before heptatitis C antibody test? Appritiate your response.

    Thanks in advance.

    • ANSWER:

  8. QUESTION:
    what does Chlamydia antibody IgG Test result mean?
    Have a postive for chlamydia test ( they drew blood and collected urine during health screen) what does it mean? The doctor says it is probably I do not have it anymore, a past infection... probably. the antibody test shows just that. is that corrrect? Does a postive antibody test show that i am currently having chlamydia? I am a male.

    • ANSWER:
      No, a positive antibody test shows that you have had previous exposure to the infection. You may or may not have it, but if you are not having symptoms, then you probably don't have it anymore. Antibody test does not determine whether you have something, only that your body has an immune response to it which means your body has seen it before.

  9. QUESTION:
    Which of the following is true about an HIV-antibody test?
    A.
    It is confidential.
    B.
    It can determine if you have HIV immediately after you have been exposed to HIV.
    C.
    If a person tests positive on one HIV-antibody test, he or she is considered HIV positive.
    D.
    The tests are available at a limited number of hospitals in the United States.

    • ANSWER:
      Linda is right. It's a)

      For a person to be diagnosed with HIV, TWO different antibody tests must be performed (ELISA and WB), there is a "window period" for the tests , so b) is wrong and the tests are available everywhere so d) is just crazy.

  10. QUESTION:
    HIV antibody test negative at 6 and 7 weeks?
    I had an antibody test at 6 and 7 weeks post exposure. Im really worried and stressed out about how accurate my results are. Both times I tested negative. I had a DNA PCR test done and waiting for my results is agonizing.

    • ANSWER:

  11. QUESTION:
    It takes 6 weeks-3 months to detect HIV in antibody test after being infected. How long do other STDs take?
    How long does it take to detect the other STDs in antibody test (blood test)

    • ANSWER:
      This is both complicated and lengthily, look it up yourself on webmd.com

  12. QUESTION:
    Can you get an accurate antibody test reading taking it just one hour after rhogam shot was administered?
    I'm 32 weeks pregnant with my 2nd child and I'm rh neg. At 12 weeks my antibody test was negative but when they gave me my rhogam shot at 28 weeks, not my dr., he was on vacation....they did antibody test about an hour later. Could this be why it's showing positive? I'm really freaked. The lab technician said they aren't suppose to give you the shot before they check your antibody levels.

    • ANSWER:
      Your supposted to have your anitbody levels checked thru a bloodtest before you get the shot. Im not sure why they did it backwards. Im rh neg as well and Ive had to have the rhogam shots. With mine when I had it I had the bloodtest one day then the next morning I had to come get the shot. You should ask your doctor, Im not too sure.

  13. QUESTION:
    How accurate is oraquick hiv antibody test with oral fluid at 3 months?
    I had protected vaginal and unprotected oral sex with a 36 years old women in a few ocassions. Tested negative after 3 months. Can I rely on the test accuracy and move on? Is it conclusive? I've been feeling stressed and anxious for a couple of months now and I feel weak. I need honest and professional answers. Thanks beforehand

    • ANSWER:
      90 days is the window period for HIV testing. You can move on now. If you are still worried after reading this, then have a blood test for HIV. To be absolutely sure, you could have a Western Blot done. The Western Blot is a confirmatory test for HIV. So if it is negative, then you are ok. However I think you are ok now.

  14. QUESTION:
    what is the purpose of the antibody test while trying to determin Hypothyrodism?
    I suspect I have hypothyroidism. Been to 2 doctors. 1 only tested my T3 and T4 and the other only tested the TSH (which was 1.65 at the time)...... none of them ever tested for antibodies... the reason I ask it, a few years ago, I got sick and it felt like the flu, except I had pain in my neck and heart palpitation. So I wonder if I got a virus that has effected my thyroids.
    I want to ask for the next doctor I go to to check the anti body test.....because I heard it should be done(NO DOCTOR HAS DONE IT YET).....so I want to educate myself on it......what is the antibody test for hypothyrodism??

    • ANSWER:
      There are a couple of tests for antibodies, one of them called TPO. This is the test that will often show if there is hypothyroidism. Also, it's important that the dr check for Free T3 and Free T4 as these can tell if something is going on. The free of both of these are the parts that are left over, meaning not used by the thyroid.

      The T4 converts to T3.

      To learn more about thyroid disorders, and the tests check out: http://www.thyroid.about.com

      The ANA (antinuclear antibody) is one of the ways that they can check for Lupus and other arthritic conditions but sometimes the Lupus can be missed so other tests like a newer test that is now out called the Sera Protein test do a better job of finding out if one has Lupus (I'm eventually hoping to have this test done myself).

      A primary care physician can run an ANA but most of the time it's done by rheumatologists.

      Yes, sometimes an autoimmune disorder of the thyroid such as hypothyroidism in particular Hashimoto's can start with a virus.

      I would recommend being evaluated by an endocrinologist as they will run all the tests in the thyroid panel.

  15. QUESTION:
    How accurate the HIV rapid antibody test is?
    How accurate the HIV rapid antibody test is ?does its not accurate than other HIV test?

    • ANSWER:

  16. QUESTION:
    what does it mean when your GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE 65 ANTIBODY test is positive?
    I'm having a little trouble deciphering some test results and I'd like to know a little more before the doctor starts throwing medical terminology at me.

    • ANSWER:
      not 100% sure but sounds like celiac disease test ( gluten allergy)

  17. QUESTION:
    will prozac mess up my results on the toxoplasmosis IGG antibody test?
    im going to have this blood test done and i am on prozac, can this cause false positive or false negative results?

    • ANSWER:
      Well not sure but i think it won't make any impact, consult the doctor for more details.
      Also if you looking for the imformation on prpzac check
      http://www.buygenericmed.com/generic-prozac.html

  18. QUESTION:
    Where do i send animals to get direct fluorescent antibody test or rabies test?
    I have a dead (since last night) wild rabbit, my cat bit him around the neck nearly killing him. i tried to care for him undoubtedly getting some of his saliva on my hands, which at some point may have come into contact with my mouth. Im a hypochondriac so id rather be safe then sorry plus knowing that the rabbit didnt have rabies would be a relive.

    • ANSWER:
      based on your description, you did NOT have a valid rabies exposure, even if the rabbit were rabid. You do not need to receive treatment.

      But you should most definitely have your cat vaccinated if he has not already been.

      If you really are obsessive, and want the rabbit tested, you'd cut off the head and send it to the local public health department -- I would expect them NOT to do this for free - and it could be a very big bill for you, if you can convince them to do it.

      But if you want to pursue it, your local public health dept is where to start --- look 'em up in the phone book.

  19. QUESTION:
    How many days its take to produce enough antibody in HIV test?
    Hi
    Generally how many days it will take to produce enough HIV antibody to show up in test if person is relatively healthy ?
    Does anti stress medication affect on HIV test ?does this anti stress meds block producing antibody?

    • ANSWER:
      Mean window period is about 115-181 days after infection, which means that 50% of all infected persons develop enough antibodies to be detected by modern tests before this time and the rest 50% - after this time. By 6 months after infection, all infected persons are seroconverted. Before seroconversion occurs, HIV-1 infection can be detected by HIV-1 RNA tests which are very sensitive for PHI but false-positive results occur. Results that indicate <5000 copies/ml are considered indeterminate and require re-testing.
      http://www.metapathogen.com/HIV-1/HIV-1-disease-progression.html
      I did not find any mentions about any kind of meds (except for may be immunosuppressant) influencing production of antibodies

      You also can call confidentially and for free - numbers are here: http://www.metapathogen.com/HIV-1/HIV-resources.html

  20. QUESTION:
    If someone has tested positive to Filaria Antibody test , is it a serious situation?
    Is it life threatening?

    • ANSWER:
      antibodies help you their good

  21. QUESTION:
    How long does it take for a Hashimoto's Disease (Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody) test to come back?
    I took the test 4 days ago and still waiting.......................

    Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      It depends on the lab it was sent to...but I have never had an antibody test come back sooner than a week.

      Hope you get it soon.

  22. QUESTION:
    How reliable is a 7 week, 3 day HIV antibody blood test?
    I tested negative at this point but I was still feeling symptoms. I had chronic symptoms of fatigue, muscle pains, joint pains, swollen lymph nodes starting at about 1-2 weeks after possible exposure to about 8/9 weeks after exposure. I also had a itchy skin rash (like it was under my skin/ inside my body) for about 1 month, which started 1 week after my possible exposure.

    Does getting tested during the acute symptom stage mean that antibodies are not present?

    • ANSWER:
      Not reliable. You have to sweat it out for 3 to 6 months.

  23. QUESTION:
    Rh negative and test positive a for antibody, Should I be worried?
    I am 29 weeks pregnant and I am RH Negative. I had to get my Rogham shot a little early b/c antibodies were found in my blood test. I just went back to the doctor 1 month after the shot for another screening and they said the rogham antibody was found which is goos, but also I test posivtive for antibody A. I'm not sure what that means. I'm a worried b/c this is my second child.

    • ANSWER:
      I was the same way with both of my pregnancys. You will just have to receive another shot when the baby is born.

  24. QUESTION:
    while going through TORC Antibody Test some results shows negative and some positive, will it harms my baby?
    while going through TORC Antibody Test the results shows Anti-Toxoplasma antibody (IgM) & (IgG) negative, Anti Rubela antibody (IgM) and Anti CMV antibody (IgM) negative while Anti Rubela antibody (IgG) and Anti CMV antibody (IgG) posiltive is al these results may harm my baby.

    • ANSWER:

  25. QUESTION:
    When is an HIV Antibody test conclusive?
    Many doctors and organizations say 3 months - if testing negative after 3 months to the exposure, then you most likely do not have HIV. However, there are still some organizations and doctors that say 6 months. I tested today at the 8 week (2 month) mark, which came back negative. I will return in 4 weeks (12 weeks or 3 months after exposure). What are the chances that I do/don't have HIV?

    • ANSWER:
      wait 6 months to get the most definitive answer

  26. QUESTION:
    Can Lymphoma or any other disease/illness cause a false negative HIV antibody test?
    What about the rapid tests such as the oral and finger prick tests?

    • ANSWER:
      Modern HIV antibody tests that are used in the United States are EXTREMELY accurate. If there was some doubt (such as if you were recently infected), you might do a HIV RNA viral load by PCR. There are some diseases that might sometimes result in a false negative HIV test, but to have those diseases, you would have to be very very ill.

  27. QUESTION:
    why it takes 6 months to show antibody in hiv test?
    why in some cases it takes 6 months to show antibody in hiv test r there factors behind that to test to take 6 months.

    • ANSWER:
      It RARELY takes 6 months for a person to make antibodies to HIV (and therefore test antibody positive).

      If 100 people were infected today.....
      75 of them would make antibodies/test positive by 17-20 days after infection.
      By 2 months, 95 of them would have tested positive
      By 3 months, >99.6 of them would have tested positive.

      In a fraction of a percent of cases, it can take up to 6 months for the body to make antibodies to HIV. These people are SERIOUSLY ill to begin with. For example.....if a person is undergoing cancer chemo/radiation there immune system is seriously weakened and if they are subsequently exposed to HIV it can take up to 6 months for them to create antibodies. Other examples would be people who have received organ transplants and are required to go on anti-rejection meds (which weaken the immune system) it can take them up to 6 months to test positive. But these are people who are seriously ill and have a pre-existing immune dysfunction at the time of being exposed to HIV. There are also a few genetic conditions that can play a role but these would be diagnosed in a person at an early age.

      So, the public health message is that an HIV test TODAY gives you your results as of 3 months ago. The 6 month window period is only for someone with a pre-existing severe immune dysfunction and shouldn't be included in general messaging.

      3 months is the window period for HIV testing for the vast, vast, vast, vast majority of the population.

  28. QUESTION:
    Describe the HIV antibody test in the following ways: What body fluid is used,what does the test look for.....
    and when is the test accurate.

    Thank you.
    Just to let you know,i dont have HIV.

    • ANSWER:
      the antibody test, usually refers to an ELIZA test. blood is used for the test and the test looks for the antibodies against HIV. once you are infected with HIV, the body's immune system needs to recognize it as an invader first then it creates antibodies to attack the HIV. Its these antibodies that the test looks for.

      Your body takes time to make these antibodies, so the test is not accurate the first 3 months after infection because there are not enough levels of antibodies made. The test is accurate anytime after 3 months of infection (99% effective) and 100% effective 6 months after infection.

      (this first test is for screening, it wants to get everyone that is infected and sometimes reacts when a person really is negative, therefore it is important to get a second type of test to confirm HIV infection).

  29. QUESTION:
    What does my thyroid test mean? Its a THYROPEROXIDASE antibody test.?
    got a test back from dr but am anxious, cant wait till tomorrow. what does this mean?

    THYROPEROXIDASE ANTIBODY

    TPO AB My range <10.0 Standard range <35- IU/mL

    • ANSWER:
      If you've been diagnosed with thyroid disease, your doctor may recommend a thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody test — in addition to other thyroid tests — to help determine the cause.

      The presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in your blood suggests that the cause of thyroid disease is due to an autoimmune disorder such as Hashimoto's disease or Graves' disease. In autoimmune disorders, your immune system makes antibodies that mistakenly attack normal tissue. Antibodies that attack the thyroid gland cause inflammation and impaired function of the thyroid.

      Your count is "less than 10" ("<10"), which likely means your count is within the normal range.

  30. QUESTION:
    how long does it take to get results for a hepatitis c antibody blood test?
    I am trying to become a navy diver and need my results quick. I was told it would be a week but wasn't sure if they might come back with in a few days.

    • ANSWER:
      depending on where they send it, a week to ten work days.

      good luck on your hcv test, hope its negative! hcv sucks!

  31. QUESTION:
    Help!!!! I am having a panic attack. I just got a call from my doctor that my antibody test came back abnormal?
    I asked the nurse what that meant and she said she didn't know, and that the doctor wants me to retake the test. Does anyone know what this might mean? I am 7 months pregnant.

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/antibody-tests

      It's about the RH Factor. They want to make sure you are both
      RH positive or RH negative.

      Read the article.

      Best of Luck and don't worry. That's why they do this test.

      Breath Mommy and read.

  32. QUESTION:
    Why did my Anti-HCV antibody test come up positive?
    I'm an 18 year old male. I've never had sex, drank alcohol, used illegal drugs or any of the other ways to usually get Hepatitis C. Yet when I went to donate blood plasma, they said a screening test came up positive for the Antibodies for Hepatitis C. I'm really scared! Why would this happen?
    Serious answers only please!!!!!!

    • ANSWER:

  33. QUESTION:
    How does the HIV antibody test work?

    • ANSWER:
      when you get HIV your body develops a HIV antibody the test look for that antibody that is in your blood.

  34. QUESTION:
    What is Anti Nuclear Antibody after blood test for Immunology?
    The result is Titre:1280, Flag H, Pattern: Speckled
    Also, Anti -DNA Antibody is negative <10
    Can some experts tell me what are they about ?

    • ANSWER:
      An ANA or antinuclear antibody is found in people with autoimmune diseases. You ANA titer is high, so there's little doubt that this is occurred because of a false negative. The pattern can give doctors another indication of what's going on. A speckled ANA is associated with SLE, Sjogren syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed connective tissue disease.

      Anti-DNA antibody is found in some people with SLE, but there are no definitive tests.

      A doctor should look at your blood tests along side any symptoms you have.

      If you're not already, you should be seeing a specialist. If they're testing your anti-DNA, it sounds like you're being seen by a rheumatologist.

      ....

  35. QUESTION:
    Is a four week negative hiv antibody test and negative pcr test reliable?

    • ANSWER:
      PCR test must be fairly accurate not antibody test.
      Accuracy and window periods for var tests:
      http://www.metapathogen.com/HIV-1/HIV-testing.html

  36. QUESTION:
    How does an hiv antibody test work..?
    as everyone says that hiv is a fragile virus that dies fast once exposed to air..!
    So then how can labrotary detect hiv anitbo!y!

    • ANSWER:
      Viren, stop it. You don't have HIV. Go to your doctor ASAP and talk to him/her about your obvious anxiety problem.

  37. QUESTION:
    Why might it take several weeks after exposure to HIV for a person's HIV antibody test to be positive?

    • ANSWER:
      you have to wait for the virus to build up in number, trigger an immune response, and your body to make antibodies against it...the test looks for the antibodies

  38. QUESTION:
    Can i relax with six week antibody test?
    First time in my life I had protected - sex with a sex worker 9 weeks back - Symptoms in first four weeks were - night sweating four times, back muscle ache's and sinus (sinus history)
    One week - PCR DNA -NEGATIVE, Four week PCR RNA - <50ul (below detectable level), Six week Elisa Negative.

    Doctors say i am fine and need not to take tests any more.

    Now could you please tell me can i relax??

    Still i experience severe low back pain :'-(

    • ANSWER:
      You sound anxious and nervous. Your anxiety itself can cause all of the symptoms you have described. Congratulations for practicing safe sex! You are 99.9% sure that you are HIV negative just by using a condom alone. Also, if you are HIV positive, symptoms wouldn't show up until you are in the advanced stages and are going into the AIDS stage. HIV is symptomless most of the time. And four weeks is waaaaaay to early to start getting symptoms of it. You are fine. The only thing you can do is wait 5 months and get tested once and for all. In 5 months when your HIV test comes up negative, relax. You can actually relax now. You wore a condom! You are fine! Keep wearing protection everytime you have sex. And hell, if you feel that you are going to contract everything even when you wear a condom, then lay off the sex for awhile. Maybe you aren't emotionally ready to do it. Good luck and you are HIV negative, so stop worrying!

  39. QUESTION:
    what is the window period for HIV antibody testing and antigen test?

    • ANSWER:
      For greatest accuracy, 3 months.
      However it is possible for HIV to remain dormant for months or years before antibodies show up.

  40. QUESTION:
    Would family doctor do hiv PCR , DNA AND RNA test instead of antibody only?
    please answer , I did PEP to prevent hiv infection , and its been since july 08 and Ive been testing neg , last test was feb 17 10, they say seroconversion can be delayed when doing that kind of prevention ... my doctor is an asshole and would be like the antibody test are just as good but really , the PCR , DNA RNA look for the virus itself and not for antibodys your body produces ,, what do you think?

    • ANSWER:
      Well PCR technique is much more expensive than traditional screening tests and more complicated; they're generally only used in research or on newborns with mothers who are HIV positive, since doctors need to know right away if a newborn has it and babies don't make antibodies to anything until they're at least 6 months old. Also your insurance probably won't even cover it. They always go with the more common and cheaper methods. I know its frustrating but if you do have the virus you will eventually seroconvert and it will be picked up by the ELISA/Western Blot tests.

  41. QUESTION:
    How reliable is a 7 week HIV antibody blood test?
    What percentage of people test positive by 7 weeks?

    • ANSWER:
      These results are conclusive and reflect your status. 99.9 turn postive if they have the virus.

      The people that fall into .1 have immune issues as it is or have an immune system that is impaired.

  42. QUESTION:
    What does it mean to test positive to a antibody/antigen test?

    • ANSWER:
      if you test positive for an antibody test it means that your immune system has produced antibodies against the antigen they are looking for.

      so for example if doctor suspects HIV, they can look at a blood test to see if your body has produced antibodies against HIV, if it has then at some point the virus must have been in the body.

      Each antigen has its own unique molecular structure and the body produces antibodies that are able to link up to receptors on the antigen, these antibodies therefore have a certain structure too, which is how they are able to look for these things..

      for more info on antibodies google IgG or IgM IgE etc etc

  43. QUESTION:
    does the antibody test for virus c gives positive results directly after the enterance of the virus?

    • ANSWER:
      It takes from 2-6 months to show up in an antibody test.

  44. QUESTION:
    how can I obtain prices of IDDEX PRRS antibody test kit?
    HerdCheck* PRRS Virus Antibody Test Kit 2XR for detection of antibody to PRRS in swine serum. I want to get the price index for the ELISA test and information on how to remit payment and mode of delivery.

    • ANSWER:
      I don't really know... but this site has all sorts of testing kits available. I figured I would just show you the link... you will know what you are reading... i don't!!

      good luck.

      http://www.focusdx.com/focus/2-diagnostic_products/product_list.asp?region=dom

  45. QUESTION:
    In a immunodiffusion test, an antibody becomes?
    In a immunodiffusion test, an antibody becomes

    a. more concentrated as it moves by active transport.
    b. more concentrated as it moves by simple diffusion.
    c. less concentrated as it moves by active transport.
    d. less concentrated as it moves by simple diffusion.

    b?

    • ANSWER:
      d. less concentrated as it moves by simple diffusion.

      The concentration falls with distance to sample well.

  46. QUESTION:
    Where in London can I get tested for HIV using the porn industry HIV test not the usual HIV antibody test?
    I am a man in London, England. I mean the test which detects the HIV virus itself as little as a week after initial infection, not the one which only detects the antibodies three to six months later. I wish to get it done anonomously with no identity checks or links to my NHS records. If I have to go private, how much should I expect to pay? What is the likelyhood of catching HIV from unprotected fellatio and cunnilingus? (The vaginal sex was protected.) Since the encounter I have been experiencing a sore throat, headaches, chills and fatigue. Coincidence or kiss of death?

    • ANSWER:
      First off, go to a private doctor that specializes in Infectious Disease if you do not want to use the NHS. Secondly, you seem a bit paranoid and based on what you are saying I think you are OK.... Just go to NHS and get it done, if it comes back negative, no big whoop - you're good. If it comes back positive, which is highly unlikely, they would be the best people to give you some treatment options.

  47. QUESTION:
    what is antiphospholipid antibody test?
    The answer must consists of the principle of the test and it's relation to Syphilis. It must be related to medical diagnosis of disease.

    • ANSWER:
      Antiphospholipid testing is used to help determine the cause of an unexplained thrombotic episode, recurrent fetal loss, thrombocytopenia, and/or a prolonged aPTT test. Depending on the patient’s clinical findings, a physician may order one or more types and classes of these tests to help detect the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and to help diagnose APS. Cardiolipin antibodies (IgG, IgM, and sometimes IgA) are frequently ordered as they are most common antiphospholipids. If a patient has a prolonged aPTT test, further lupus anticoagulant testing is usually indicated. Anti-beta2 glycoprotein I and anti-phosphatidylserine testing may be ordered along with the other antiphospholipid antibodies to detect their presence and to provide the doctor with additional information.
      If an antiphospholipid antibody is detected, the same test(s) may be ordered 8 to 10 weeks later to determine whether their presence is persistent or temporary. If a patient with an autoimmune disorder tests negative for antiphospholipid antibodies, they may be retested as these antibodies may develop later.
      Occasionally, antiphospholipid testing may be ordered to help determine the cause of a positive VDRL / RPR test for syphilis. The reagents (chemicals) used to test for syphilis contain phospholipids and can cause a false positive result in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies.
      Please note that I am not a medical professional.
      Please see the Google search for more details on Antiphospholipid antibody test.

  48. QUESTION:
    has anyone undergone HSG, Mantaux test and antisperm antibody tests?
    The doc has precribed these 3 tests for me in order to go in for IUI. Please let me know if anyone has taken these tests and are they painful. Are there any specifics that I need to keep in mind

    • ANSWER:
      A mantaux test is a test for tuberculosis. It's just a small injection just under the skin under your forearm. Very small needle and not painful at all. In a few days you will have to return to the hospital/lab and someone will "read" the test by feeling the spot on your arm where you were injected. If it has a lump, it is positive. Positive means you possibly have TB. Not sure why your doc would be doing this test, but possibly just to make sure you are healthy before he proceeds.

      Sorry, I'm not sure about the other tests.

  49. QUESTION:
    Medicare covers chickenpox antibody blood test?
    I need the blood test to find out if I can get the new Shingles (H. Zoster) vaccine, because I don't know if I ever had chickenpox and I could get a severe reaction from the vaccine if I never had the chickenpox. I need the vaccine because I am blind in one eye and the shingles could make me blind in the other.
    Answers that contain only non-authoritative personal opinions or non-answering reference sites are of no value. Please submit authoritative answers only.

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.sleh.com/sleh/Section004/index.cfm?pagename=vaccinations&PageMD=TRAVEL%20MEDICINE

      Hope this link helps you obtain any of your unanswered questions.

  50. QUESTION:
    My blood was sent to a lab test (NOT antibody test) for HIV. It turned out negative.?
    I know the rapid antibody test must be done 3 months after your sexual contact to be accurate.

    But my blood was sent to a lab test (NOT antibody test) for HIV. It turned out negative.

    My last sexual contact was 2 weeks ago.

    My doctor told me i'm safe.

    Is it?

    • ANSWER:


Antibodies In Blood

If you have been suffering for sometime with low platelet blood count you have most likely been diagnosed with ITP disease or at lest suspect ITP. If you have done any research, and you probably have already, you are informed enough to know that ITP is an autoimmune disease. This means that your body's defense system is attacking your platelets and destroying them or causing them to be destroyed.

What are the standard treatments for ITPc
1. Steroids
2. Chemotherapy
3. Spleen removal

You must admit, some pretty lousy choices. And what are the purpose of these traditional treatmentsc To destroy your immune system! Maybe I should be less dramatic and say suppress you immune system, but the truth is some of the drugs actually destroy your defense system. This ends, at best, with you being left defenseless against just about any bug or infection that comes along.

Why not just suppress or control the part of the immune system that is attacking your platelets and causing your low platelet blood count instead of the whole thingc Is that even possiblec Contrary to most medical opinions, the answer is YES! Doesn't this sound like the most sensible approachc
So how can this be achievedc

There are two types of herbs and nutrients that have an effect on your antibodies.
1. Immune Stimulators
2. Immune Modulators

What is the differencec

There are herbs that stimulate the immune system. For example Echinacea. This herb is usually recommended for the flu and for colds. Echinacea is an immune stimulator. It stimulates the whole immune system. This would not be advisable for your low platelet blood count because the stimulation would promote platelet destruction.

An herb or supplement that is an immune modulator would regulate your overactive immune system. This type of herb or supplement would decrease the bad part of the immune defenses while increasing the part protecting you from sickness.

In other words, an immune modulator would decrease antibodies destroying your blood platelets while continuing a balance of the rest of the immune system. This is the herbs, or I should say, types of herbs and supplements needed to improve your low platelet blood count and end ITP.

You just have to learn which herbs and supplements to use and how to use them. You don't want to just take any herbs or supplements without understanding what they are for or how they can affect you. You need to be precise in your choices and not use a shotgun approach.

I would like to encourage you to take the time to look into this more. You will never be sorry that you did. Your low platelet blood count can be completely done away with but YOU WILL NEED TO TAKE ACTION... no one will do it for you. Research and study is the key and believe me, it is worth it!

You now possess possibly the most valuable information about your low platelet blood count and another choice you have to dealing with it successfully. I wish the best and good health to you.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Absence of antibodies in blood after immunisation?
    The scenario:
    25 children all immunised against measles at least 4 weeks ago. Their blood samples were taken to check for antibodies. Of those 25 tested, 21 tested +ve and 4 tested -ve for antibodies. What caused the difference in antibodies result?

    • ANSWER:
      A variety of different reasons could cause the difference. Though highly improbable, the 4 children who tested negative may have compromised immune systems, usually indicative of serious illnesses such as AIDS or cancer. Another reason could be that the 4 children are suffering from leucopenia, which results in a shortage of white blood cells.

  2. QUESTION:
    is antibodies in blood from transfusions harmful?
    Father-in-law received a blood transfusion before his hip surgery. He required another transfusion 2 weeks later, but they discovered he has antibodies in his blood from the transfusion. They cannot give him another transfusion until they can build an antigen. How does antibodies get into blood from a bloodbank - don't they check for this? Why is having this antibody potentially harmful?

    • ANSWER:
      Your father-in-law has developed alloantibodies secondary to the red cell transfusion he received. Besides ABO and Rh blood types, there are over fifty additional blood groups determined by immunohematology testing. Each blood group, consisting of the presence or absence of specific sugars and proteins on/in the red cell membrane, is determined by genes inherited from our parents. Prior to transfusion, your Father-in-law's blood was typed for ABO, Rh and screened for unexpected antibodies. His sample was the crossmatched against donated red cell units of compatible ABO/Rh type. His plasma was incubated with the donor red cells to see if he had any antibodies that would react to the transfused cells. At that time, everything was fine.

      Remember, a blood transfusion is essentially a tissue transplant. After transfusion of the donor red cells, his immune system recognized the minor differences of one or more of the proteins/sugars of these "other" blood groups (antigens) and produced antibodies against some he does not have himself. This is a common occurrence and is generally easily handled by the transfusion service. For all future transfusions of red cells, donor units will be screened by the hospital lab for the specific antigen his antibodies are reacting against and antigen-negative units will be given. These tests are not to be confused with the transfusion-transmitted disease screens preformed at the regional blood collection facility which supplied the components to the hospital.

      Alloantibodies, over time, may decrease in strength and not be detected by screening tests. He may have produced these alloantibodies on this transfusion event, or, if previously transfused, had a rapid ramp-up of antibody production when exposed to the same antigen (amnestic response). Because antibodies levels may drop with time, his transfusion records will be permanently retained by the blood bank and checked prior to any future transfusion.

      Red cell antibodies are of concern because of the potential for an "acute transfusion reaction". Some antibodies cause rapid destruction of the transfused RBC's in the blood vessels, potentially leading to kidney damage and death. However, acute hemolytic reactions are uncommon, usually associated with mismatched ABO transfusions (very rare). Most alloantibodies are associated with a "delayed" transfusion reaction. In this case, the transfused red cells become coated with antibodies and are slowly removed from circulation by the spleen. The transfused cells may not remain in circulation as long as non-coated RBC's, possibly requiring the need for additional transfusions.

      It may be helpful to request a list of these antibodies in case transfusion at another hospital is ever needed.

  3. QUESTION:
    How do you test for the presence of antibodies in blood?
    How quickly can they be detected in rabbits (how many test bleeds and how often?)
    Do you remove the serum first and use column chromatography?

    • ANSWER:
      The ELISA test. You take the antigen in a buffered solution, and stick it to a plastic plate, then you put dilutions of the rabbit serum onto the plate. If the antibodies stick, then they were specific to the antigen and you can detect them via an ezyme that sticks to the antibodies. It's a multi-step process, takes a couple days. Only one bleed is required, though you usually do a pre and post after 2, 4, 6 weeks, etc.

  4. QUESTION:
    why when antibodies in blood o will be diluted when it was in other blood?
    but blood ab antigens' a and b cannot be dulited in blood o

    • ANSWER:
      O is more like a lack of blood type while A and B are antibodies. You can have none (type O) one (A or B) or both (AB). If you are given blood that has an antigen that your body does not have then your body will recognize it as foreign and you will die.

      So type O can be given to anyone since it has no antibodies where as AB can accept all blood types because they have both antibody types (for that location of the gene, there are other types of antibodies like +/- ).

  5. QUESTION:
    Which of the following represents the highest proportion of antibodies in blood and is able to cross placenta?
    Which of the following represents the highest proportion of antibodies in the blood and is able to cross the placenta? Explain briefly its specialized role.
    a. Ig
    b.IgG
    c.IgA
    d.IgE
    e.IgG and IgM

    • ANSWER:
      b. IgG

      Because IgG is the smallest of all antibodies hence they can pass through the placenta. IgM is also produced in large quantities but they cannot pass through the placenta because of its large size.

      http://classof1.com/homework_answers/biology/immunology/

  6. QUESTION:
    what test is used to determine if Hep B surface antibodies in blood are due to past infection?
    test to find out if Hep B antibodies in blood are due to past Hep B infection or due to vaccines
    My results are as follows
    HepBs ab 540 U/IL
    Hep B Ag negative
    Hep C Ag negative

    what does that mean?

    • ANSWER:
      Well you certainly ask an interesting and complicated question. I can imagine your concern though, hopefully, I can provide some information to give you some piece of mind.

      Now let me talk a little bit about hepatitis B serology’s because this is a very confusing issue. A positive hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) suggests that an individual has been exposed to hepatitis B but not necessarily that they have an on-going infection. You cannot get a positive anti-HBc from the vaccination. I am sure that there is some potential for false positive anti-HBc tests and there is always the potential for laboratory error. I am not certain what the rate of false positives are though I imagine it would be relatively unusual.

      If you are anti-HBc positive but also positive for the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-Hbs), this means that you have been exposed but have cleared the infection and are immune. It also means that you will not give the infection to anyone else. It also means that your hepatitis B surface antigen will be negative, because generally someone will not test positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody at the same time. If on the other hand, you are anti-HBc positive and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, this is concerning because it means you are infected. This would mean the vaccine was not effective or that you were infected before the vaccine was given. It also means that you are infectious and cannot donate blood.

      But this is what I would recommend. I would suggest you get a repeat anti-HBc test as well as a HBsAg and an anti-HBs test. Finally you may wish to get an anti-HBc IgM test because if this test is positive it suggests that you were infected recently (sometime in the last 2 to 10 weeks). If you are positive for the anti-HBc and positive for the anti-Hbs test, you do not have hepatitis B, you are not infectious and you do not have to worry about this. In addition, you would not need periodic testing. It does mean you were exposed to the virus, though I cannot tell you if this was before or after the vaccination.
      I hope this information is helpful to you. Understanding hepatitis B can be very confusing not just to patients but to a lot of physicians as well.

      This response is being provided for general informational purposes only and should not be considered medical advice or consultation. Always check with your personal physician when you have a question pertaining to your health.

  7. QUESTION:
    Positive antibodies in Blood type and antibody screan during pregnancy what does this mean..>>>>?
    Im 29 weeks pregnant and Was at the ER yesterday dr told me that my blood typing and antibody test came back as A+ antibody positive what does this mean?

    • ANSWER:

  8. QUESTION:
    How do you determine what antibodies and antigens are in blood typing?
    The antibody and antigen part is confusing for me. Help!

    Phillip is type A+ and Alina is type AB+.

    What blood group antibody is found in Phillip's blood?
    What blood group antigens are found in Alina's blood?

    • ANSWER:
      ABO system antibodies are naturally produced against non-self antigens.

      Phillip's plasma contains naturally occurring anti-B antibodies, and he has the terminal sugar, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (A antigen) attached to the precursor H-antigen.

      Alina has two terminal sugars attached to the H-antigen, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (A antigen.) and D-galactose (B antigen). Alina's plasma does not contain naturally occurring ABO antibodies.

      In addition to anti-A and anti-B antibodies, there is a third, unique antibody, anti-AB, produced by type O individuals (along with anti-A and anti-B).

  9. QUESTION:
    What are the dangers of having A negative blood that has built up antibodies ?
    I am pregnant with my second set of twins. My doctor called and said my body has built up antibodies from a blood transfusion I had when I gave birth to my first set in 1994. He said I will have to start seeing a high risk maternal medicine doctor for this. What are the dangers and procedures involved? Should I be worried about my well being or my babies?

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.webmd.com/content/article/4/1680_51841?src=Inktomi&condition=Health%20Topics%20A-Z

      You should go read that, it won't let me cut and paste the key parts here. But here is a tiny bit:

      What Is Rh Disease?

      Rh disease occurs when an Rh-negative mother and her husband conceive an Rh positive child. When a few of the baby's Rh positive red blood cells cross into the mother's system via the placenta, either through a fall or accident, an amniocentesis, during a miscarriage, elective abortion, or ectopic (tubular) pregnancy, or after delivery when the placenta is removed, the mother's immune system identifies these Rh positive fetal RBCs as foreign and sets out to immediately destroy them, as well as form long-term antibodies to fight them off at a later time.

      If you are an Rh negative woman and you are carrying an Rh positive child during your first pregnancy, the chance of becoming sensitized and causing a problem for the baby is small. If the baby's RBCs pass into the mother's system, her body responds by producing antibodies and she becomes "Rh sensitized." As a result, she will always carry these antibodies in her immune system.

      If you carry an Rh-positive child in a subsequent pregnancy, the antibodies created by the immune system during the first exposure respond more quickly to the foreign red blood cells from the baby. These antibodies attack and destroy the baby's RBCs in the mother's circulation, but more importantly, they also cross the placenta and begin destroying the baby's red blood cells circulating in the baby's body. Remember, we all need functioning red blood cells to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide, even a baby in its mother's uterus. There are no complications for the mother in these circumstances, but there may be minor to serious complications for the baby. This is called hemolytic disease of the newborn.

      Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

      Hemolytic disease of the newborn, or HDN for short, can actually be one or a group of symptoms exhibited by the baby. HDN is also termed erythroblastosis fetalis. The most severe symptom, which can be seen on ultrasound examination, is an accumulation of fluid throughout the baby's body, also called hydrops. After delivery, other symptoms may include severe newborn jaundice (yellowing of the body and skin), and a low red blood cell count (anemia).

      These symptoms develop as a direct result of a mother's antibodies attaching to and destroying the baby's red blood cells, or hemolysis. Thus the name hemolytic disease of the newborn. Each subsequent pregnancy can result in more severe disease in the baby. The baby begins to compensate for the decreased number of RBCs by attempting to make lots more RBCs in a short period of time. But in the baby's bodily efforts to fix the problem it creates more problems, primarily in the liver. The baby's liver becomes enlarged and unable to handle the increased work of making new RBCs and cleaning away the debris of all the dead blood cells. At this time the baby begins to accumulate fluid in its belly, lungs, and around its heart, which can be seen easily on ultrasound. The dead red blood cells form bilirubin and result in moderate to severe jaundice in the newborn. Additionally, the baby will be anemic because the mother's antibodies have broken up so many of the red blood cells.

  10. QUESTION:
    what does it mean when you have foreign antibodies in your blood work?
    Ok ,I am 9 weeks pregnant.This morning my Dr. called to let me know I need to come back in for another blood test. She said the test that she done at my visit showed a foreign antibody in my blood work? The instant I got off the phone I started researching antibodies and foreign antibodies on the internet. Which was not the info i was looking for.

    • ANSWER:
      Well an antibody is just simply protein, it's something that your immune system releases into your blood when your body has detected something that shouldn't be there. Antibodies are used to fight off antigens; which could be bacteria, chemicals, viruses or parasites - which is probably why your doctor wants you to come back in, so they can see what exactly the antibodies are protecting you from.

  11. QUESTION:
    what are antigens and antibodies in blood groups?
    b)what is agglutination and reasons why the blood groups don't agglutinate?
    -please help or please give me a link... :)

    • ANSWER:
      These links may help:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABO_blood_group_system
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibodies
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agglutination_(biology)

  12. QUESTION:
    Antibodies vs blood antibodies?
    I know that during the normal immune response the body produces antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign object. How do these antibodies differ from our blood antibodies? When are they produced and in response to what?

    Any help is appreciated - thanks!

    • ANSWER:

  13. QUESTION:
    Why does the concentration of antibodies in the blood decrease over time?
    This probably applies to red blood cells, or any other cells in our body. Does it simply get worn out? If so, in what way?

    • ANSWER:
      Antibodies are produced as a reaction to something foreign present in the body such as bacteria from a cut for example.

      Once that threat has been dealt with, there is no need for those specific antibodies. Like all cells, they have a life span and once their time is up, they will get broken down and therefore the concentration of them will go down.

      Your immunological memory will remember the make and model (if you like) of the antibodies and what they were used for in case it needs them again so there is no need for them to be present in higher concentrations all the time.

      If your cells didn't have a limited life span, you'd practically live forever...

  14. QUESTION:
    how long does it take to get results for a hepatitis c antibody blood test?
    I am trying to become a navy diver and need my results quick. I was told it would be a week but wasn't sure if they might come back with in a few days.

    • ANSWER:
      depending on where they send it, a week to ten work days.

      good luck on your hcv test, hope its negative! hcv sucks!

  15. QUESTION:
    Could somebody explain antibodies, white blood cells and microbes all to me in the most detailed way?

    • ANSWER:
      what exactly do you want to know? hahaha this is a topic that was discussed for 4 months in one of my university courses! (types, interaction, generation)? id be happy to help, but im not sure exactly you want to know.

      EDIT:
      Ok so im just gunna go with an overview:

      White blood cells (WBC): these are a component of the body's immune system- the system with keeps us healthy, by fighting off pathogens (things that make us sick- including viruses, bacteria and foreign cells) There are many different types of white blood cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes each of which targets a different kind of pathogen. For pictures of each type and what they do check out: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell

      Antibodies: Antibodies are generated by a special kind of WBC called a plasma cell.They can also be called immunoglobulins,Ig)and are found in blood or other bodily fluids. they are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens. They are many different kinds such as IgG, IgM, IgA, and they all do different things within the body. To learn more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibodies

      Microbes: refers to any kind of micro-organism. Int eh case of health you probably mean viruses and bacteria. There are millions of each of these, adn they all interact differently with the host. Some will cause no visible signs of infection, others will show symptoms. Some will cause no effect (this is why certain animals can get sick from a vrius but the virus has no effect on humans), some are found naturally within the body (such as bacteria in the gut) and some are deadly (such as HIV)

      Hope this helps!

  16. QUESTION:
    What happens to the antibodies in the blood being donated? (example recipient is A donor is O)?
    i know recipient A only makes B antibodies which the donor O has no antigens. But what about the A and B antibodies that O blood makes. Does it still bind to the recipients A blood? or is not even there?

    • ANSWER:
      As stated, the ABO system follows Landsteiner's Rule; We produce naturally occurring antibodies directed against non-self antigens. As such, type O individuals produce anti-A, anti-B and, anti-AB antibodies. Whole blood is rarely used in modern transfusion medicine. Component therapy, the separation of whole blood into specific blood components, provides a more efficient and efficacious use of a very precious resource. The majority of blood donations in the U.S. are collected in 500 ml bags, each containing 70 ml of anticoagulant. Following centrifugation and separation, 110 ml of AS solution is added to the red cell unit, providing a shelf-life of 42 days (at 1-6 degrees C). The anticoagulant, centrifugation and subsequent storage solution effectively dilutes and removes residual plasma ( and ABO antibodies) from the red cell component. This is why type O red cells may be given to most patients without incident.

  17. QUESTION:
    Blood antigens and antibodies?
    During a blood transfusion, blood type O can be transferred to a person of any blood type. This is because the other blood types does not have any antibodies against blood type O. But why wont the antibodies in blood type O "attack" the blood of other blood types when it is transferred into other blood types?

    • ANSWER:
      They will be diluted when transfused and will not be actively made as the host's antibodies are.

  18. QUESTION:
    What doest mean when doctor tells you have antibodies in the blood?
    how many types of that can be and what kind of disses they may cause?

    • ANSWER:
      If you have antibodies in your blood, that indicates that your body is fighting back to attack the disease the antibodies are for. That means that you probably have that disease.

      Antibodies do not cause disease, they try to fight it.

      I am -NOT- a doctor, ask your doctor for more information.

      If you have a medical question, your doctor's visit is the time and place to ask the question and get a real answer.

      The internet loony bin should not be your port of call where information concerning your health is concerned. Assume we know nothing, go talk to your doctor. If you don't understand what is going on ask as many questions as you need to find out more.

      This is your health, it is a serious issue. Be serious about your health.

      Good luck!

  19. QUESTION:
    Infectious Mononucleosis test involves testing for antibodies in the blood so it is an immunological test?
    Im referring to the monospot test - so would this be done in the department of immunology or in the department of haematology?

    • ANSWER:
      The hospital I work at does it in the hematology dept.

  20. QUESTION:
    is O negative with antibodies a rare blood type?
    I was giving plasma at a plasma center in montana and was told I could no longer because I had atypical antibodies in my blood from being pregnant with positive blood type children. Does this mean I have a rare blood type?

    • ANSWER:
      Without specifics ion what they meant by antibodies, it's hard to comment.

      With regards to plasma, in the future women will be taken out of the donor pool for plasma Regardless of blood type due to the risk of white cell antibodies causing several deaths a year involving TROLI (transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury). Women who have had many children appear to have a higher incidence of these antibodies due to child bearing exposures. In Europe this has already happened and studies performed showing a decreased incidence of TROLI when they were taken out of the donor pool for plasma.

      With regards to the O negative plasma possibly containing anti-D (Rh antibody) then keep in mind that plasma is transfused without regard to RH factor because the plasma does not contain red cells a type O neg patient can be given O pos plasma and an O pos can be given O neg plasma. So your plasma might end up in somebody who is RH positive. It isn't ideal to be giving them antibodies to RH. Apart from the mild reaction it can create much confusion with further testing or evaluating transfusion reactions. For one thing the entire plasma is usually infused without any left for testing and so we are left scratching our heads a few days later. It creates a diagnostic confusion. It can also cause unnecessary delays in getting blood products as all issues much be resolved before any products are issued.

      Keep in mind that because you are Rh negative and have an anti-D, there will be delays in you receiving blood until the antibody you have is identified again by any blood bank asked to find compatible blood for you in the event you might need some in the future. In your case that would simply be O negative red cells. Unfortunately, type O neg is in short supply and relatively rare. This means that in the event of an emergency trauma situation you would be infused or given uncrossmatched type O positive. This is routinely done in women out of child bearing age (old).

  21. QUESTION:
    how does ab blood group fight infection if it does not have any antibodies?
    antibodies in blood fight infection so hoe does ab blood group fight infection

    • ANSWER:
      AB does not stand for antibodies. AB blood does not fight infection. A and B are two proteins on the surface of red blood cells. They are just mutations/variations. The proteins don't really do anything.

  22. QUESTION:
    antibodies in my blood can it be caused by antibiotics?
    i had a normal blood test and the result cum bk as i had antibodies but i had antibiotic before the test can that be the reasom?

    • ANSWER:

  23. QUESTION:
    What is responsible for the fatal reaction that occurs when type A blood is given to an individual that has?
    What is responsible for the fatal reaction that occurs when type A blood is given to an individual that has type B blood.

    Antibodies from the type B blood attack the antigen in the type A blood.

    The antigens in the type A blood attack the type B blood.

    The blood types mix to form type AB blood with both A and B antigens.

    No reaction occurs, blood type A is the universal donor.

    • ANSWER:
      Answer A is correct. The Type B blood's antibodies don't recognize the A antigen ... the A antigen is foreign to the person.

  24. QUESTION:
    what happens to the antibodies in the blood being donated? (example recipient is A donor is O)?
    i know recipient A only makes B antibodies which the donor O has no antigens. But what about the A and B antibodies that O blood makes. Does it still bind to the recipients A blood? or is not even there?

    • ANSWER:
      The above answer is completely wrong. Antibodies bind with antigens, not antibody to antibody!

      First of all. A Type O person has antibodies to A and B. Type A has antibodies to B. Type B has antibodies to A. And Type AB has no antibodies. So, if type A blood were to be transfused to a type O recipient, antibody-A (in the recipient's plasma) would attach to the A-antigen on the transfused red blood cells, leading to an immediate immune reaction and the patient most likely dies.

      Donated blood units are separated into several different components, most commonly, packed red blood cells and plasma.

      Antigens are present on the red blood cells. Antibodies are present in the plasma. Therefore a type A person can safely receive type O packed red blood cells, because the plasma (and therefore antibodies to A) is removed.

      Because antibodies are present in plasma, the "rules" for universal donor/recipient are reversed when it comes to FFP (plasma). Type AB is the universal donor for plasma because they lack both A and B antibodies. Type O plasma has antibodies to A and B, and can therefore can only be donated to another Type O person.

  25. QUESTION:
    Antibodies/neutrophils found in the formed elements or the blood plasma?
    In my pathophysiology textbook it says that neutrophils are also known as antibodies. Neutrophils are found in the formed elemets of the blood (if split into the blood plasma and formed elements) as a white blood cell type.

    Then later in my textbook it says "blood plasma contains antibodies known as agglutinins". But, i thought it was the formed elements that contain antibodies/neutrophils?

    Any help/clear up my confusion?

    • ANSWER:
      Firstly, Neutrophils are not known as antibodies, that is wrong. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins, which are produced by B cells. Neutrophils are part of the innate immune system, they are the most abundant 'white blood cells'.

      Some antibodies are also agglutinins (molecules which help blood to clot)

      Blood plasma is the liquid which suspends all the cells platelets and proteins.

      - I would be very interested to find out which pathophysiology text book has the line 'neutrophils are also known as antibodies' if you get a chance to reply

  26. QUESTION:
    How do I completely eliminate the antibodies in my blood which show up in the false positive VDRL test?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi there.
      Its considered that if a VDRL test has been positive once, it will always remain positive so there is nothing you can do to change that.

      The VDRL test measures the ratio. So you should be worried if your ratio is high or has increased from the last one.
      A ratio of 1:10 or less is considered safe if you have ever been treated for syphilis.

  27. QUESTION:
    Why can't I have a surgery if they found an antibodies in my blood?

    I was suppose to have a surgery but they found out that I have an antibodies in my blood and my surgery was delayed. Why can't have my surgery right away?

    • ANSWER:
      I'm guessing you have a rare antibody against red blood cells and they need a specialty site to crossmatch and find units of blood that will not cause a transfusion reaction. They probably want to make sure that if you require a blood transfusion during the surgery that they have compatible blood.

  28. QUESTION:
    Medicare covers chickenpox antibody blood test?
    I need the blood test to find out if I can get the new Shingles (H. Zoster) vaccine, because I don't know if I ever had chickenpox and I could get a severe reaction from the vaccine if I never had the chickenpox. I need the vaccine because I am blind in one eye and the shingles could make me blind in the other.
    Answers that contain only non-authoritative personal opinions or non-answering reference sites are of no value. Please submit authoritative answers only.

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.sleh.com/sleh/Section004/index.cfm?pagename=vaccinations&PageMD=TRAVEL%20MEDICINE

      Hope this link helps you obtain any of your unanswered questions.

  29. QUESTION:
    What does Cold antibodies mean in a blood test while Pregnant?
    My Dr.s office called me today and told me that I am O positive and that my blood work came back and it was positive for an Antibody called Cold. They said it had nothing to do with the cold virus. I am supposed to get another blood test to check the level in my blood that the cold Antibodies are at my next appointment. I am 10 weeks pregnant. I was trying to do some research and I can't seem to find anything. Anyone have any ideas?

    • ANSWER:
      Can't seem to find anything?
      I googled cold antibodies and got tons of hits.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_agglutinin_disease

      I'm not saying thats what it is. Just what google gave me from your above stated information.
      You should have really asked more information from health professionals. Not on a public forum.

  30. QUESTION:
    How can a AB+ recieve blood from other blood types without reacting with the antibodies present in other blood?
    For example: if a A+ person gives blood to a AB+ person, wont the anti-B antibodies present in the A+ blood react with the antigen-B present in the AB+ blood?

    • ANSWER:
      I understand what you are asking and that is if a A+ person who contains anti-B in their blood donates to a type AB person that the antibodies will coat the AB cells or more specifically the B antigen on the recipients blood.

      That is correct and how they bypass that or prevent that is by not giving the plasma in the donors unit. They take out the plasma and just give the red cells from the donor A+ unit.

      Whole blood with the red cells and plasma are no longer given as whole blood. The plasma is not useful when it is held refrigerated. When one donates blood it is fractionated into red cells and plasma and platelets and each held separately.

  31. QUESTION:
    can an Elisa test detect HIV antibodies in blood after 4 weeks of exposure?what are the chances in percentage?

    • ANSWER:

  32. QUESTION:
    What are antibodies and which blood cell in the immune system releases them as part of the immune response?

    • ANSWER:
      Antibodies are specialized proteins in the blood that react to foreign antigens. Blood types A, B and O all have antibodies in plasma, and AB does not. Blood types A, B and AB all have antigens, and O does not. Therefore, AB is the universal recipient and O is the universal donor. So the blood types that release antibodies as a part of the immune response are A, B and O since AB does not have any antibodies.

  33. QUESTION:
    Antibodies in blood and I'm O Positive?
    I just got back from the doctor and I'm 12 weeks pregnant. The doctor told me that during my last blood work they found antibodies in my blood (a low amount). She said that since I'm O Positive that it's weird that I would have them. Has this happened to anyone else and how did it turn out?

    • ANSWER:

  34. QUESTION:
    how come group O blood can be given to anyone, even though it has antibodies for A and B?
    I would have thought the antibodies in the donated blood would damage the recipient's own blood.

    • ANSWER:
      Your thinking is exactly right. I believe the antibodies in donated O blood wouldn't usually be at a high enough concentration to cause a lethal reaction, unlike mismatched donor antigens. Nevertheless, for the reason you give it is always much better to either match blood type exactly or use blood in its component parts, so if the patient needs red blood cells they will be given those alone without the plasma (which contains antibodies).

      Blood donations are now invariably split into their components (red cells, platelets, plasma and white cells - the last being discarded). This is partly because of the problem you describe and partly not to waste useful blood stocks on giving patients components they would do better without.

      O- is the universal donor for red cells. As you may have guessed AB+ is the universal donor for plasma (no anti-A, anti-B or anti-Rh antibodies). Recently someone I know received a donation of both red cells and plasma, and the hospital gave exactly that: O- red and AB+ plasma. They were having trouble taking a blood sample from him to test his type.

  35. QUESTION:
    Antibodies in blood transfusion?
    What is the clinical significance of antibodies D and K in both a transfusion and Heamolytic Disease of the Newborn Scenario.
    Where can i find details upon the percentage of the population who are negative for for K and D antibodies.

    • ANSWER:
      anti-K (if you mean Kells), irrelevant.
      Anti-D, is Rh-incompatibility: mother Rh negative with newborn baby Rh positive can lead to pre-natal death, if the mother had ever developed anti-Rh antibodies (she had been transfused before or she had already had an Rh+ baby).

  36. QUESTION:
    Warm antibodies in blood anyone else have this?
    It will show up on a test but only bothers me when i am pregnant..their is a medical term for it but i forgot it..the antibodies kill my red blood cells....how did i get this?
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000571.htm
    hemolytic anemia why do i have this? i can't even give blood to anyone

    • ANSWER:
      It isn't something you "get" from someone.. that isn't why you can't give blood. In most forms, it is a condition of genetics.
      Your red blood cells die young due to one of several potential reasons (the different forms) but your bone marrow doesn't make new ones faster to make up for their early demise.

      Other factors will always influence how severe it is, pregnancy, stress, environmental factors, and so forth, but most forms are not life threatening without influence from other, significant, health issues.

  37. QUESTION:
    How do the A blood group people have B antibody in their blood ?
    How do the A blood group people have B antibody in their blood ? antibodies are formed on the exposure to antigens.Then What made the presence of B antibody in the A group people.Please explain me

    • ANSWER:
      People with A blood type have A antigens on the surface of their red blood cells, and around in the blood itself, they have B antibodies. That is why they can't have blood from B or AB person, because these have B antigens which will clog the blood of A people when mixed with it.

  38. QUESTION:
    Explain the role of antibodies in ABO blood group incompatibility and Rhesus incompatibility?

    • ANSWER:
      The antibodies in the plasma are the exact opposites of the antigens on the erythrocytes: type A has anti-B. type B has anti-A, type AB has no antibodies, and type O has both antibodies. The antibodies will cause any erythrocytes with the corresponding antigen to clump together (agglutinate). So, if type A is given type B or type AB blood (both of which have B antigens), the donated blood cells will clump together; antibodies in the donated blood won't matter, because it will be diluted by the recipient's blood.

      Rh antibodies are the same. If an Rh- person is given Rh+ blood, the receiver's antibodies will cause the donated cells together. But this reaction is usually much less serious than a type mismatch.

  39. QUESTION:
    Why don't antibodies in type O blood kill recipient blood?
    I don't understand, if a person is type O, they have no A and B antigens, but have type A and B antibodies. So if they give blood, why don't these antibodies kill recipient blood.
    Why can they be shared harmlessly and don't attack the host antigens?

    • ANSWER:
      oh my god - some of these answers are scary.

      the question is very excellent though and very correct. the anti-A and anti-B CAN destroy the patients red cells if transfused to a group A or group B or group AB individual.

      however:

      the antibodies are in the plasma and modern practices in blood processing split the components into their various parts - plasma and platelets and red cells. the red cells has very little plasma on them so very little anti-A or anti-B is transfused

      donations with plasma on them are tested to see if the levels of anti A or anti B might be considered harmful and those donations with high titre (levels) of anti-A or anti-B are marked as not for transfusion to group A or B or AB patients.

      the term universal donor is a very misleading one, in general it is true and group O can give to any other group, but precautions are necessary and are taken by transfusion services

  40. QUESTION:
    If a certain blood type reacts to both anti-A anti-B antibodies, what blood type is it?
    soooo confused. does that make it O?? ....or AB??

    thanks in advance :)

    • ANSWER:
      If it reacts to both antibody A and antibody B, then the blood type is AB. If it doesn't react with either of them, then it is O.

  41. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to start banking of antibodies, like we bank blood, stem cells etc?
    If this is possible, we would be able to build immunity in ourselves for all diseases instantaneously. Just inject the antibodies and get immune. Sound too simple to be true. But is it?

    • ANSWER:
      Injecting antibodies would only make us immune for a short time. One of the reasons that breast feeding is good for a baby is that the baby gets some of its mother's antibodies for a little while. But they don't last. And they only make the baby temporarily immune to the specific diseases that the mother has antibodies for, because antibodies are specific. (That's a good thing, because antibodies need to be specific enough to not attack our own tissues and cause autoimmune disorders!) For lasting immunity, our bodies need to know how to bring out our own.

      Vaccines are very good for this. Inject them, and our body learns how to make those antibodies.

  42. QUESTION:
    Antibodies in my blood during pregnancy?
    I am now 13 weeks pregnant, when I was about 8 weeks pregnant the doctor had to take alot of blood to see if antibodies in my blood matched up. Him and my own personal doctor asked if I had ever had any blood transfusions before and I haven't. They did send it back to a lab and the antibody was unknown. Before I was pregnant, they didn't find any of these antibodies. Has anybody had this? Is it a serious problem? The doctor had also said he'd have to make sure the hospital knew about them for when I gave birth..

    • ANSWER:

  43. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know of a site that tells the amount of antigens and antibodies in each blood type?
    Its for type A, B, O, and AB. (so all of them)

    • ANSWER:
      http://faculty.matcmadison.edu/mljensen/BloodBank/lectures/blood_bank_antigens_and_antibodi.htm

  44. QUESTION:
    If mother's blood is O group and fetus is A, then why antibodies from mother destroy blood of fetus?
    In erythroblastosis fetalis mother is -ve and child is +ve. Then in it antibodies come from mother to child and destroy the RBCs. But if mother is O and fetus is A or B then why not the antibodies come to fetus and destroy the cells?

    • ANSWER:
      Because the ABO blood group antibodies are of IgM type so they are too big to cross the placenta to the fetus. However the antibodies of -ve are of IgG type so it can pass through.

  45. QUESTION:
    why cannot people with hep antibodies in their blood give blood?
    I have never had hepititus but have the antibodies in my blood indicating I have been exposed to it at some time, but I now can not give blood

    • ANSWER:
      there is a small risk using it, it's the safest thing not to use it.

  46. QUESTION:
    Where in the body are the antibodies against other blood group antigens that are NOT yours?

    • ANSWER:
      In the blood plasma.

  47. QUESTION:
    How a newborn with blood group O has antibodies for both A and B antigen?
    how can an infant with blood group O will have an antibody against antigens A and B when in reality the infant was never been exposed to those antigens before.

    As we all know an antibody to antigen can only be produced in human body if we are exposed to the specific antigen, than how a newborn who has never been exposed to an antigen in his lifetime can produce A and B antibodies.

    Is this an exception to the antigen antibody rule or is it caused by antibody cross-reactivity, please elaborate.

    • ANSWER:
      ABO antibody production is stimulated by cross-reactivity with primarily bacterial antigens after birth.

  48. QUESTION:
    what purpose do the antibodies in the blood serve?
    a) they help the blood clot when the body is cut

    b) they attack bacteria and viruses that make us sick

    c) they carry food and oxygen to the organs

    d) they remove waste products from the parts of the body

    • ANSWER:
      b) Antibodies are substances produced by white blood cells called plasma cells, that defend our bodies against danger. When an antigen (something in the body that is considered harmful, like a virus or a bacterium) is found, certain white blood cells will make antibodies that are specially for those particular antigens. They lock onto them and destroy them, or stop them from working.

  49. QUESTION:
    What type of blood contains A antibodies(but not B antibodies) in the plasma and lacks RH antigens?
    A. AB negative
    B. A positive
    C. B negative
    D. O positive

    Help?

    • ANSWER:
      C. B negative

  50. QUESTION:
    Antibodies in blood....?
    The doctor said that I have antibodies in my blood..i have been told before that they are warm antibodies....not sure if these ones are the same...it used to be they only showed up when I was pregnant...now they are still here 7 weeks after my last pregnancy...so they are sending me to the hemotologist again...in the past for some reason these antibodies destroy my red blood cells and make me anemic...i have had iron by IV because I have Crohn's / Ulcerative Colitis and I can't take Iron cause it makes things worse and i end up getting an abscess...has anyone ever heard of this before..? With my daughter they were worried that i might pass on hemolytic anemia to her during pregnancy...does this mean that I have auto immune hemolytic anemia? What type of questions exactly should i ask my doctor? Has anyone been in my shoes before? Does this mean i have some type of blood disorder? i have never been actually diagnosed with anything...
    thanks so much for answering...it will be great to actually get a diagnosis for once and to know what is going on with my body!
    The iron infusions didn't do anything to help my anemia at all...

    • ANSWER:
      From the information you have provided, you probably have autoimmune hemolytic anemia (warm antibody type) which is a much rarer entity than iron deficiency anemia. More importantly, you don't need iron supplements to treat it.

      Your G.P. has rightly directed you to a hematologist because this requires further evaluation by a specialist. If the anemia is severe; cortico-steroids are the first choice of drugs to suppress the production of auto-antibodies.


Secondary Antibodies

Cold Agglutinin Disease, a rare blood disorder, is a type of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Cold agglutinin disease, also called cold antibody disease. Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) usually develops as a result of the production of a specific IgM antibody directed against the I/i antigens (precursors of the ABH and Lewis blood group substances) on RBCs. It is caused by the body mistakenly making antibodies (of the IgM type) against a component of red blood cells. Cold agglutinin disease is classified as primary or secondary. Primary cold agglutinin disease is usually associated with monoclonal cold-reacting autoantibodies.

Cold agglutinin disease occurs in the pediatric population but is more frequent in the elderly population.Primary cold agglutinin disease is chronic and occurs after the fifth decade of life, with a peak incidence at approximately age 70 years. Secondary cold agglutinin disease may be associated with either monoclonal or polyclonal cold-reacting autoantibodies. Secondary cold agglutinin disease is predominantly caused by infection. Secondary cold agglutinin disease in children and young adults is usually transient and is caused by infection. Secondary cold agglutinin disease primarily occurs in children and young adults.

Overall, roughly 7-25 percentage of cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia are caused by cool agglutinins only. Symptoms of this disorder may include tiredness; anemia caused by reduced levels of circulating crimson blood cells; jaundice characterized by relentless yellowing of the rind, mucous membranes and whites of the eyes; and/or perspiration and coolness of the fingers and/or toes and spotty bluish or crimson discoloration of the rind of the fingers toes, ankles, and wrists. Cold agglutinins are seen in CANOMAD syndrome. CANOMAD syndrome is described by gait and upper-limb ataxia.

Cranial nerve involvement with external ophthalmoplegia. More than 80% of patients have evidence of hepatitis C infection. Interferon and interferon plus ribavirin have been shown to produce serologic responses. Conventional medical treatments may help relieve the symptoms of cold agglutinin disease. When vasculitis is active, corticosteroids are often required to permit healing of ulcers in the skin or to treat the membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis that is seen, thereby preventing loss of renal function. Rituximab therapy has been found to be effective in mixed cryoglobulinemia, with decreases in cryoglobulin values and improvement in complement values.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    when staining cells for immunofluoresence, what is the purpose of primary and secondary antibodies?
    what is the difference between antibodies and antigen?

    • ANSWER:
      An antigen is what an antibody binds to. Usually a primary antibody just binds to this antigen and sits around waiting for the secondary antibody to bind to it. The secondary antibody is usually modified to be fluorescent or have an enzyme attached to it so that it can be easily detected. The advantage of this is that you only need to have a few different kinds of secondary antibody. Once you get a primary antibody there is probably a secondary antibody that some company has made which will bind to it and which can be easily detected.

  2. QUESTION:
    Primary and Secondary Antibodies?
    A) Explain how primary and secondary antibodies used in research are obtained. In other words, how are they produced?

    B) Secondary antibodies can usually be linked to different things to allow the detection of the specific protein/antigen. Mention a few examples of enzymes that are commonly linked to them, and their substrates.

    • ANSWER:
      A) primary Ab are formed in organism when it encounters an antigen for the first time. and secondary antibodies are formed when it encounters an antigen it has already infected with previously.

      to form them in lab, you use mouse strains. infect them with an antigen and recover the antibodies from blood or from cells that produce them.
      secondary Ab can be produced by infecting the mice with an antigen, letting the mice to produce an immune response and overcome it. then we infect the mice with the same antigen again. it will produce secondary antibodies in mice which can be recovered by the same procedures.

      B) such procedures are used in immunoassays. the substrate used is usually chlorogenic, i.e. it produces colour when acted upon by the respective enzyme. The conjugated enzymes act on compounds known as substrates to modify them chemically. Salimetrics uses TMB (3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine) as the substrate in its immunoassay kits. TMB is often the preferred colorimetric substrate because it gives the highest color intensity and low background values. Salimetrics uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the conjugated enzyme in most of its immunoassay kits. It is one of the most favored enzymes used in immunoassay because it acts on the substrate at a high rate, which increases the amount of color produced.

  3. QUESTION:
    Why must the secondary antibody in immunohistochemistry staining come from a species other than the primary?
    For example, lets say you start with monoclonal mouse primary antibody for a particular antigen. Why must the secondary antibody come from a different species than that of mouse, like rabbit anti-mouse? Could you not raise antibodies in the mouse which are specific for the primary? Is it because there would not be a response in the mouse since it would not be recognized as foreign? Or would there be non-specific binding to the sample?

    • ANSWER:
      To make a secondary antibody against a mouse (for example) you would inject mouse Ig subtype of choice into another animal. If you injected the mouse Igs into a mouse, the mouse would not recognize it as foreign and would not mount create antibodies against it. Thats the major reason.

  4. QUESTION:
    Indirect immunohistochemistry - secondary antibodies?
    Ok so I'm a bit confused about how you'd actually conduct an experiment using indirect immunohistochemistry...
    I guess if you were trying to identify a protein in a mouse you would inject some of the protein into a rabbit and then isolate the primary antibodies from the rabbit's plasma, is this right?

    For the secondary antibodies do you then put the primary antibodies in a sheep and then draw out the plasma again?
    I understand what secondary antibodies are, I am more interested in how to conduct the actual experiment.

    • ANSWER:
      Usually, you just buy in pre-made secondary antibodies, which will already have a fluorphore or HRP conjugated to them.

      But yes - the method you describe is how the secondarys are made. You make them by injecting a sample of (in your example) rabbit antibodies (which don't have to be your specific primary antibodies, thankfully) into another animal like sheep, horse, etc.
      You allow the immune response to happen, and take a blood sample. You purify the antibodies out, by keeping those which recognise rabbit antibodies, and you then chemically conjugate your fluorophore or enzyme to them.

  5. QUESTION:
    In the ELISA test, what do primary antibodies & secondary antibodies do?

    • ANSWER:
      The primary antibody attaches to to the antigen that you're testing for. A secondary antibody binds to the first one and is usually conjugated with some sort of signal mechanism. A very common signal is Horseradish peroxidase which when given an appropriate substrate can turn colour.

  6. QUESTION:
    Secondary and Primary Antibodies...?
    Why do you have to use a secondary antibody..why can't you just get a primary antibody with fluroflores?

    • ANSWER:
      three main reasons
      1. we made primary antibody in mouse, rabbit or goat. you cannot make every antibody fluroflores for every antigen you work on. So we made anti mouse in rabbit, anti rabbit in goat, anti goat in horse. suppose you have 50 primary antibodies made in mouse. only one secondary antibody i.e anti-mouse will detect all 50. So less work, Less money and easy.
      2. primary gives one covering to ur antigen and secondary give covering to ur primary. secondary gets more space to bind. So more specific. gives better result.
      3. you cannot buy every primary from company but you can buy secondary form company...its cheep...

  7. QUESTION:
    What is the purpose of washing the wells after incubated with samples or secondary antibody in ELISA?
    What is the purpose of washing the wells after incubated with samples or secondary antibody in ELISA?

    • ANSWER:
      The wells are coated with a primary antibody which binds to your substrate; once this has occured, you must wash out your wells otherwise you end up with lots of substrate left free in the well and your measurement of the concentration may be inaccurate
      After you incubate with the secondary antibody, you must wash out the well again because it is the secondary antibody which is tagged, so if you have free secondary still in the well, even if it is not bound to your primary, it will still produce the signal you are expecting, which is produce massively innacurate results

  8. QUESTION:
    In Immunofluorescence, why must the incubation with the secondary antibody be in the dark?
    I want to know why must we incubate in the dark with the secondary antibody in immunofluorescence? and if possible a reference that I can read more about that topic.

    • ANSWER:
      Because in most cases, the fluorophore attached to the secondary antibody is sensitive to light and would degrade if exposed to it.
      For the same reason, one would not keep the microscope light on for too long, otherwise one would "bleach" the area that s/he is looking at...

  9. QUESTION:
    why secondary antibody must be against IgG of animal species in which primary antibody raised?
    The secondary antibody must be against IgG of animal species in which primary antibody has been raised. I would like to know the reason.

    • ANSWER:
      The antibodies of different species are slightly different, and the secondary Ab needs to recognise the Fc region of the primary Ab to be able to attach to it. For example, an anti-rabbit secondary Ab may not recognize the Fc of a mouse primary Ab, and fail to attach or attach poorly, resulting in a weak signal.

  10. QUESTION:
    In western blotting, what is the purpose of the primary and secondary antibody?
    In western blotting, what is the purpose of the primary antibody and secondary antibody. why is it important to know the species in which the primary antibody was made?

    • ANSWER:
      The choice of a primary antibody for a Western blot will depend on the antigen to be detected and what antibodies are available to that antigen. A huge number of primary antibodies are available commercially and can be identified quickly by searching sites such as www.antibodyresource.com or www.sciquest.com on the internet. Alternatively, a primary antibody may be made to recognize the antigen of interest. For more information on producing a custom antibody, see the Antibody Production and Purification technical section of the catalog. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies work well for Western blotting. Polyclonal antibodies are less expensive and less time-consuming to produce and they often have a high affinity for the antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are valued for their specificity, purity and consistency that result in lower background. Crude antibody preparations such as serum or ascites fluid are sometimes used for Western blotting, but the impurities present may increase background. To obtain antibodies with the greatest specificity, they can be affinity purified using the immobilized antigen. For more information on affinity purification, see the Antibody Production and Purification technical section of the catalog.

      A wide variety of labeled, secondary antibodies can be used for Western blot detection. The choice of secondary antibody depends upon the species of animal in which the primary antibody was raised (the host species). For example, if the primary antibody is a mouse monoclonal antibody then the secondary antibody must be an anti-mouse antibody obtained from a host other than the mouse. The host species of the secondary antibody often will not affect the experiment. However, secondary antibodies are available from several different host species and if a secondary antibody causes high background in a particular assay, another host species may be chosen. Another option to reduce background is to use a secondary antibody that has been pre-adsorbed to serum proteins from other species. This pre-adsorption process removes antibodies that have the potential to cross-react with serum proteins, including antibodies, from those species. To expedite the process of choosing the appropriate secondary antibody, visit the Secondary Antibody Selection Guide on our web site.

      Antibodies for Western blotting are typically used as dilute solutions, ranging from 1/100-1/500,000 dilutions beginning from a 1 mg/ml stock solution. The optimal dilution of a given antibody with a particular detection system must be determined experimentally. More sensitive detection systems require that less antibody be used, which can result in substantial savings on antibody costs and allow a limited supply of antibody to be stretched out over more experiments. It also produces a side benefit of reduced background because the limited amount of antibody shows increased specificity for the target with the highest affinity. Antibody dilutions are typically made in the wash buffer containing a blocking agent. The presence of a small amount of blocking agent and detergent in the antibody diluent often helps to minimize background.

  11. QUESTION:
    Why must the fluorochrome be attached to the secondary antibody rather than being added to the cells separate?
    we are looking for antibodies for Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 using indirect immunofluorescence.

    • ANSWER:
      Not totally sure what you're asking, but I'm guessing its because the antibody is what recognizes the virus, so it you just threw in the flourochrome, it wouldnt bind and your immunoflourescent microscopy woud just look like a fog of flourochrome.
      Also, you can have a secondary antibody that binds to many primary antibodies, so that you maintain maximum consistancy and limit costs. Your primaries will all have a group that binds the secondary, no matter what else they bind to

  12. QUESTION:
    Immunolbeling- where do we get the antibodies from?
    Hi folks, a short question-
    For immunolabeling, where do we get the primary and secondary antibodies from? There are manufacterers that provide them right? Do we have to produce some primary antibodies on our own and then give them to the manufacturer to produce more of?

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Sigma-Aldrich has an extensive variety of commonly used primary and secondary antobodies with many differnt labels. I would start looking there.

  13. QUESTION:
    Western blotting: why do we need to use a secondary antibody?
    What is the reason to use a secondary antibody if we can just use the primary antibody linked with a reporter enzyme?

    • ANSWER:
      Usually the secondary antibody will have a reporter function. This builds flexibility in Western blotting in case the reporter system isn't working, or if the secondary antibody doesn't work.

      It's very costly to produce a primary antibody against an epitope (the thing the antibody will recognize) AND also tag the primary antibody with a reporter function. After taking time to produce and purify antibodies that will specifically recognize an epitope, it would be risky to perform the chemistries needed to also engineer those antibodies with a reporter function. In doing so, you risk altering the behavior of the antibody so that it no longer recognizes the epitope as efficiently or at all.

      It's much easier to use an antibody to probe for the epitope of interest. Then depending on what organism made the primary antibody, you can get a second antibody with a reporter function to bind specifically to the primary antibody. For example, if you made the primary antibody using mice, then the second antibody will need to recognize mice antibodies. Again, it's easier to make an antibodies that recognize general mice antibodies rather than a specific mouse epitope.

      The flexibility comes in when you have problems having the secondary antibodies recognize the primary antibodies. In the above example, say you used secondary antibodies made in rabbits. If those rabbit anti-mouse antibodies don't work too well, then all is not lost. You can get anti-mouse antibodies made from goat or horse or monkey, all with different reporter systems (in case the reporter systems don't work either). Thus, the primary antibody will still function well, but you tweak the secondary antibody to get the best signal out of the blot.

      The other reason to use a secondary antibody is to get a better signal. Imagine the primary antibody binding to a single epitope (or two). So that's one molecule on the blot. If only that antibody glowed, the signal would be very weak. But if you use a secondary antibody against the primary, then several of the secondary antibodies can bind to the primary antibody (especially if the secondary antibodies are polyclonal, the different secondary antibodies will bind to different parts of the primary antibody) with each of the secondary antibodies reporting a signal. So the entire complex would be made up of one or two epitopes, one primary antibody and perhaps four secondary antibodies each of which will report a hit. Using secondary antibodies, the signal would be four times stronger than just a single primary antibody.

  14. QUESTION:
    in ELISA ,if we use human serum ,IS serum consider as primary or secondary antibodies?
    the research is quantitive detection of human TGF B3 in the serum by indirct ELISA procedure

    • ANSWER:
      Think of an ELISA as a sandwich with three layers. The antigen adheres to the plastic plate. The primary antibody adheres to the antigen. The secondary antibody adheres to the primary antibody. So, the human serum would be the primary antibody (adhering to the antigen). A secondary antibody would be used to detect whether or not the primary antibody adhered. The secondary antibody would be something like a mouse anti-human antibody or a rabbit anti-human antibody and would have an enzyme attached to it that is detected with a chemical reagent at the end of all of the incubations. So, the sandwich would be (from the top down to the well in the plastic dish):

      mouse anti-human antibody (with enzyme attached)
      human serum (contains antibody against your antigen)
      antigen (your antigen of interest)
      plastic well

  15. QUESTION:
    why secondary antibody has to be added in the dark?
    In Immunocytochemistry, when adding secondary antibody tagged with fluorescence, it has to be incubated in THE DARK...why is that?

    • ANSWER:
      Because too much light (or heat) can quench the fluorescent dye, making it not work. They will be incubated in the cold, as well.

  16. QUESTION:
    How can I get rid of the background cause by a secondary antibody in the control sample?

    Yes, but you know how expensive they are.

    • ANSWER:
      Try a different secondary Ab.

      Edit: Yes, but there isn't another way. It's obviously interacting with something in your control. I assume you can't modify your control, so the only other option is to either ignore the background or subtract it out (if doing an ELISA or something else quantitative).

      Ask to borrow a little bit of Ab from another lab just to see if the background will go away.

  17. QUESTION:
    Why is the secondary antibody from the ELISA test conjugated with an enzyme?
    and what will happen when the enzyme and the substrate meet up?

    • ANSWER:
      when the secondary antibody attaches to the antigen it will allow you to show this with the enzyme
      also in similarly (in a slightly different method):
      when the second antibody attaches to the first antibody, this will allow you to show you have the first antibody attached to the antigen

      the second antibody is conjugated with an enzyme so that when the substrate is added, the enzyme will change it into a for which will flouresce ( or some detectable form)

  18. QUESTION:
    Are antibodies secreted in much greater amounts during a secondary immune response than a primary immune respo?
    last word is response*

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, they are.

  19. QUESTION:
    what is meant by secondary antibody?
    in ELIZA we are using secondary antibody ,is it ab-ab interaction occur how it possible.and whats the difference between primary and secondary antibodies?
    and antibodies-have specificity&antibiotics -no specificity .what is meant by that?

    • ANSWER:
      secondary antibody is the living things other than the living body's living cell.

  20. QUESTION:
    Can a secondary antibody bind to a labelled primary antibody?

    • ANSWER:
      yes

  21. QUESTION:
    Immunohistochemistry: why do we only block against nonspecific secondary Ab binding?
    Doing IHC. We are using a primary and secondary Ab. We block at the beginning using normal serum from the host of the secondary antibody in order to prevent nonspecific binding. Why don't we need to block against nonspecific primary Ab binding? Can't find an answer on the web, but if you do, please let me know the address. Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      Blocking is done to prevent non-specific binding of either your primary or secondary antibody. You add an excess of blocking agent to saturate (block) any nonspecific binding sites that your Ab's might otherwise stick to. Then, when you add your primary Ab, it only sees the specific binding sites (i.e. the antigen that it recognizes).

      Since the blocking step is for non-specific binding, you don't need a separate blocking step for primary & secondary antibodies. You just need one blocking step that works well.

      Using normal serum makes sense, because it will contain a mixture of antibodies. They won't specifically recognize your target antigen, since they come from a non-immunized animal. However, they will stick to anything that tends to bind Ab's non-specifically.

      Why use serum from the secondary host instead of the primary host? Imagine you have a tissue that you want to stain for Protein X, using IHC. First you block, then you incubate with primary Ab. Let's assume that's a rabbit antibody against Protein X.

      Next you add your secondary antibody. That might be something like fluorescein-labeled goat anti-rabbit antibody. In other words, it's an antibody from a goat, and it specifically binds to antibodies from rabbits. Any place where your primary rabbit antibody has bound to Protein X, the goat secondary antibody will bind to it. Since the secondary is labeled (with fluorescein, in this example), you can detect it.

      Now go back to the blocking step. If you used goat serum to block, any non-specific binding sites have random goat antibodies stuck to them. THat's find, because the goal secondary Ab won't recognize any of those. But imagine if you'd used rabbit serum to block. All those non-specific sites would have random rabbit antibodies stuck to them. The goat secondary would recognize all those non-specifically bound rabbit antibodies, as well as any specifically bound primary antibody to Protein X. YOu wouldn't be able to tell the difference between binding to Protein X and non-specific binding.

      Hope that makes sense and is helpful. Sorry for being long-winded.

  22. QUESTION:
    What is the purpose of using the secondary antibody in the ELISA test?

    • ANSWER:
      It uses two antibodies. One antibody is specific to the antigen. The other reacts to antigen-antibody complexes, and is coupled to an enzyme. This second antibody, which accounts for "enzyme-linked" in the test's name, can also cause a chromogenic or fluorogenic substrate to produce a signal.

  23. QUESTION:
    What is meant by the primary vs secondary response regarding antibody protection?
    What is the benefit of the secondary response?

    • ANSWER:
      If you're talking about primary antibody response vs. secondary (memory) response:

      The primary response is slow to develop, taking roughly a week or more to produce significant amounts. They will initially be low affinity IgM antibodies. The affinity will increase, and eventually there will be different isotypes, IgG in most examples, but others are possible (long story). The antibody levels then fade.

      The secondary response to the same antigen will be much more rapid, with very large amounts produced within a day or two. The antibodies will have a high affinity from the start. Most of these will be an isotype besides IgM, probably IgG in most examples.

  24. QUESTION:
    When testing for HIV using ELISA, would you use a polyclonal or monoclonal secondary antibody and why?

    • ANSWER:
      With the indirect ELISA, a polyclonal Ab is often used as the capture and either monoclonal or polyclonal can be used as a secondary. Why either one? It depends on the specificity needed.

      A capture Ab is used with the direct ELISA but a secondary Ab isn't used.

  25. QUESTION:
    What is the difference between Primary Antibody and Secondary Antibody? Also...?
    a) What (in general terms) is goat anti-mouse IgG antibody?

    b) What (in general terms) is anti-bovine tubulin antibody

    • ANSWER:
      1. A primary antibody is specific to the protein of interest. The secondary antibody is specific to the primary antibody and has no affinity for the protein of interest.

      A. Goat anti-mouse IgG antibody is a secondary antibody developed in the goat that has an affinity for the mouse IgG protein. Affinity = binds to

      B. Anti-bovine Tubulin antibody is a primary antibody that will recognize the tubulin protein that is generated in the cow (bovine).

  26. QUESTION:
    How do memory cells work in triggering the secondary immune response?
    I know that they make the secondary response more rapid, but how? do they differentiate into plasma cells to make the antibodies themselves, or do they trigger the production of more plasma cells?

    • ANSWER:
      well the first time that your body encounters the pathogen it has an innate immune response and the attack is not specific for the pathogen that is invading and it can only distinguish self vs non-self. If this does not work your body releases more serious attacks which is T cells. T cells activate B cells. Your body makes a history book and records this specific battle by making memory B cells. B cells are responsible for making antibodies. So the second time your body encounters this same pathogen it does not have to go through this whole long process. It will just clone the memory B cells which contain the antibodies causing lots of antibody production....thus the quick response =)

  27. QUESTION:
    Immunohistochemistry - where do you raise antibodies??
    I understand the basics of direct and indirect immunohistochemistry but am a bit confused as to the actual experimental process, especially when you need to use different animals for the indirect method.
    For example, if I want to find the location of a particular receptor on the surface of a mouse cell, where can and can't I raise the primary and secondary antibodies?

    • ANSWER:
      You can raise antibody against any mouse cell surface protein in any animal other than the mouse. Normally it is done in the laboratory rabbit. The second antibody will be goat anti-rabbit IgG. The idea of a second antibody is that you can use the same kit to work with any mouse protein.

  28. QUESTION:
    The question about ELISA- What is the correct answer from the following related to the secondary antibody?
    What is the correct answer? I am so confused...please help me out Please
    The secondary antibody used in this particular ELISA was…

    a. an antibody raised in rabbits with lupus
    b. an antibody raised in rabbits that recognizes the constant region on human antibodies
    c. an antibody isolated from the serum of the patient
    d. an antibody raised in rabbits that recognizes only the SLE human antibody, and no other human antibodies

    based on IMMUNOLOGY LAB exercise from http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/

    • ANSWER:
      Okay you didn't give the whole question or background really - and I don't relaly feel like going through that whole thing. But the point of the secondary antibody is to tag the antibody that is attached to the antigen that you are detecting. Usually the secondary antibody will recognize all human antibodies and is usually made in another animal - maybe a rabbit or rat. So I would say B. an antibody raised in rabbits that recognizes the constant region on human antibodies.
      You should really understand the underlying foundation of ELISA though because its really important. Your protein or antigen is going to be on the plate and then you expose it to the primary antibody. This antibody will attach protein and then you will wash off any antibodies that are floating around or non specific. Then you tag the primary antibody with a secondary antibody. This secondary antibody may have something on it that makes it colored like peroxidase. This allows you to put your ELISA in a spectrophotometer to measure the amount of protein by the color.

  29. QUESTION:
    Antibodies used in western blotting?
    In order for the secondary antibody to bind to the primary antibody in western blot, one has to use a different animal to produce secondary antibody to that of the primary antibody? Is it because the secondary antibody produced would only recognize the primary antibody produced from a different animal as foreign and thus attach to the primary antibody?

    Please help.

    • ANSWER:
      Good job. Seriously. I agree with your deduction.

  30. QUESTION:
    Why would you use the same isotype of antibody in ELISA?
    Situation: ELISA assay. Microtitre plate --> wells coated with trout serum. Have two antibodies (unknown A and B from mouse). Have to determine which one is the anti-trout. (the other one is anti-catfish). The antibodies are both of the same isotype. Secondary antibody is anti-mouse Ig.

    Why do we use the same isotype of antibodies? Is it for negative control?

    • ANSWER:
      It is a control in one sense, but there are several reasons you are using the same isotype. The primary antibody is almost always an IgG isotype, and this is true in your case also (because the secondary antibody is an anti-mouse IgG). The primary antibody is a mouse anti-trout antibody and is more specifically a mouse anti-trout antigen IgG antibody. The secondary antibody (used to detect whether or not there is any primary antibody bound to any antigens) is an antibody against mouse IgG (called anti-mouse IgG antibody). The reason you use the same isotype antibody in all cases as the primary is so you can reduce the complexity of the experiment and reduce the complications you have to worry about. For instance, if you used an IgG and an IgM in different dishes, and a secondary specific for each, then you would have to worry about different binding specificities to the antigen as well as for the binding of the secondary antibody and so you couldn't directly compare the results. If you use the same IgG and same secondary in all cases, then you can generally directly compare your results, so the only changing factors are the amount and source of the antigen. It is also cheaper and more convenient this way.

  31. QUESTION:
    why we dont attache a large particle size for example (200nm)to the secondary antibody ?
    please help ,

    thanks thanks thanks alot

    • ANSWER:
      1) 5-nm colloidal gold works well for EM
      http://www.jhc.org/cgi/reprint/39/1/37.pdf

      2) conjugated enzyme systems can produce excellent signal amplification including formation of locally deposited materials

      3) the particle size would limit binding as two antigens on the same cell are likely to be closer than 200nm apart

  32. QUESTION:
    in ELISA, why the assay need secondary antibody labeled, why no just label the primary antibody?

    • ANSWER:
      antibodies have two sides: a constant region and a variable region. So the primary antibody has a variable region that specifically binds to the antigen of interest... this primary antibody can be made naturally by the immune system of an organism. If a person is exposed to antigen X, the natural process in his body will create anti-X antibodies. So then we could take a sample of his blood and collect the anti-X antibodies (with affinity chromatography this is easy), purify them and use them in an ELISA to detect antigen X. Unfortunately the natural process does not label the antibodies... thats why we need secondary antibodies.

      The secondary antibody specifically binds to the constant region of the primary antibody (all the primary antibodies will have similar constant regions) and has a detectable probe. So you can use the same secondary antibody with lots of different primary antibodies.

  33. QUESTION:
    which of the following is not a way in which the secondary immune response differs from the primary immune?
    response?

    a. the secondary response begins faster

    b. the secondary response lasts longer

    c. the secondary response only occurs after a primary response for the same antigen

    d. the secondary response produces higher levels of antibodies

    e. the secondary response allows new antigens to be recognized faster

    • ANSWER:
      a....its very slow..it can sometimes take days

  34. QUESTION:
    Why can't you attach a marker directly to a primary antibody. Why need a secondary antibody?

    • ANSWER:
      You can attach the detectable tag to the primary antibody. But, you can buy the tag attached to an antibody to antibodies from another organism. For example, one of the cheapest antibodies you can buy is fluorescein labeled rabbit antibody against mouse antibodies. It will recognize any mouse antibody and bind this fluorescent tag to it. If you have any mouse monoclonal antibody (almost any, let's not go there), then this antibody will bind to it. Now, you only have to prepare a mouse antibody to your protein or whatever and you can detect it. No reason you couldn't bind FITC to it to make it fluorescent, but it's another lab procedure. So simplicity and price are important reasons. But also, if you use a secondary antibody where several molecules of that fluorescent antibody can bind to one molecule of your primary antibody, then you can get more signal for each antibody bound using the secondary antibody labeling.

  35. QUESTION:
    Immunohistochemistry with antibodies from Western blotting?
    I'm try to run IHC (immunohistochemistry) on some tissue slides for which I've previously been able to detect the protein on a Western. I used the same primary antibody as in the Western and then I incubated with the same secondary antibody for 5 min. I realized that since there's horseradish peroxidase in the secondary antibody and I'm using Vectastain Elite Reagent kit that uses biotinylated secondary antibodies for detection, I switched to incubation with this new secondary. Will IHC still work?

    • ANSWER:
      Are you using a fresh sample? If you're just re-incubating the slides as before, the sites where the new secondary antibody would bind might very likely be occupied or blocked by the original secondary antibody.

      The other issue is whether the Vectastain reagent will recognize the primary antibodies. Make sure that the kit is approved for recognition of epitopes of antibodies from whatever animal the primary antibody was derived from.

      I did IHC when I was in grad school and it blew serious chunks. Good luck!!

  36. QUESTION:
    can i attach a monoclonal primary antibody to a polyclonal secondary?
    i want to carry out the Immunohistochmistry method

    • ANSWER:
      I think you can, can't remember specifics but I believe it can work to produce a better antibody or something.

  37. QUESTION:
    can I use 5% skimmed milk in TBS-T to block unspecific secondary anitibody in "immunostaining"?
    As we know, 5% skimmed milk in TBS-T are used in western blot to block unspecific secondary antibody, and serum are used immunostaing, Just wondering if i can use milk in immunostaing? why? Many thanks for any input^^

    • ANSWER:
      A good place to ask this question is here:
      http://www.ascb.org/forums/upload/index.php?s=f87347240e082f89436cc1de863e5bde&act=idx
      Or Protocol online.
      http://www.protocol-online.org/
      Protocol online is like Y!A for biologists and other biotechs.

      AFAIK, 5%BSA with TBS (no tween) is standard operating proceedure.

      I can't use milk in my fluorescent westerns because it autofluoresces, and so does tween, so I'm betting a similar problem is why milk isn't used.

  38. QUESTION:
    What are the advantages of transfection over immunohistochemistry or vice-versa?
    Please give the reasons why you would choose transfection over using a primary and secondary antibody. Thank you for your expertise.

    • ANSWER:
      You are comparing apples and oranges--the two different methods do very different things and are not used for the same purposes.

  39. QUESTION:
    Which statement below is characteristic of a secondary humoral response?
    A.It only occurs in the spleen.
    B.It results in less memory cell circulation.
    C.It results in less antibody secretion.
    D.It triggers fever.
    E.It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.

    • ANSWER:

  40. QUESTION:
    The antibody most responsible for the larger secondary immune response is?

    • ANSWER:
      IgG is the main antibiody produced in a secondary immune response.

  41. QUESTION:
    The activation of the secondary immune response begins with which of the following?
    a] antibodies
    b] killer T cells
    c] memory cells
    d] mast cells
    e] suppressor T cells

    • ANSWER:
      c

  42. QUESTION:
    What does HRP in Western Blotting means?
    "Western blot of sample from lane 7 in gel figure probed with commercial rabbit anti-gfp antibody primary antibody and goat anti-reabbit-IgG secondary antibody linked to HRP and developed using colour substrates NBT/BCIP." ... what does HRP and NBT/BCIP means and why are they linked to the antibodies??

    Thank you!!

    • ANSWER:
      As above, HRP is horseradish peroxidase.

      NBT is nitro blue tetrazolium; BCIP is 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate. Together, they produce the color deposition.

      Linked means linked. The horseradish peroxidase is covalently bound to antibodies in a manner that does not impede antibody binding or enzyme activity. The complex can bind to the target by the antibody function, then the enzyme causes a reaction that creates an insoluble colored compound which precipitates around the enzyme. Without going into your sources, I should add that NBT/BCIP is used with alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme, rather than HRP.

  43. QUESTION:
    Is each a primary or secondary defense system?
    Skin
    Tears
    Saliva
    Ear Wax
    Gastric Juices
    Cilia Hairs
    White Blood Cells
    Antibodies

    • ANSWER:
      They are all primary defense mechanisms, except for White Blood Cells and Antibodies. Cheers.
      Note to Caligula, cilia remove 'things' 'inside' the body, tears often do the same !
      Since you are soooo cute, and have so many fans ! Some 'bonus' info. - Primary defense mechanisms are controlled/ activated by autonomic nervous system, Secondary ones are activated/ controlled by Immune system. lol [ not lol= laff out loud, but lol = lots of luv, Merry Xmas hunny ^-^ ]

  44. QUESTION:
    The fetus of a lion receives antibodies that were produced by its mother while it was still in the womb. This?
    This is an example of:
    A a primary immune response
    B passive immunity
    C active immunity
    D secondary immune responce

    • ANSWER:
      Do your own homework.

  45. QUESTION:
    Which of the following is an effective defense against bacteria but does not work against viral particles?
    a. secretion of interferon by an infected cell
    b. neutralization by antibodies
    c. the enzyme lysozyme
    d. a secondary immune response
    e. humoral immunity

    • ANSWER:
      c

  46. QUESTION:
    i'm running western blot to detect the his-tag at my protein intrst..how to chse crrect antibody n devlpg sol?
    I use anti-his N-term as primary antibody and anti-mouse as secondary antibody but failed!no bands detected and high background noise. What should i do?i use developing solution (alkaline phosphatase buffer+bcip+nbt)..plz help!

    • ANSWER:
      Did you see any other bands? If not, try to increase 1-st AB amount. With positive control, of course (if you do not have purified tagged protein ask neighbors, somebody should have it). How old 1-st and 2-d AB?

      Quality of 2-d AB you can check on dot blot: Immobilize 1-st, block, hybridize with 2-d and stain it.

      Do you really has 1-st AB from mouse? Is it IgG or other ones? 2-AB for IgG?

      I am sorry about so stupid questions but I am trying to remember all possible situations.

      If 2 is OK, try change 1-st. It may be dead, it happens. Try to find anti-His from other supplies. Once I had anti-His perfectly stained hen egg lysozyme but not His-tag.

  47. QUESTION:
    For western blot, using a primary antibody that was raised in pigs...?
    what features MUST the secondary antibody have?

    • ANSWER:
      Well first, it must recognize the primary antibody. So Anti-Pig (wtv your antibody is - IgG for instance). Second, the secondary antibody must be tagged/have an enzymatic activity that will be detectable.

  48. QUESTION:
    The spleen belongs to the secondary peripheral lymphoid organs and it is found in the upper left quadrant of t?
    The spleen belongs to the secondary peripheral lymphoid organs and it is found in the upper left quadrant of the human abdomen. It also weights about 150 grams, a rather small organ. What is the function of the spleen?

    A. In addition to producing antibodies, it filters the lymph, and generates ATP
    B. In addition to stimulating an immune response, it is responsible for oxygenation of the lymphatic nerves
    C. In addition to producing antibodies, it is responsible for removing bile acids
    D. In addition to stimulating an immune response, it filters the blood to remove abnormal red cells and invading microorganisms

    • ANSWER:
      D. I work in a lab and we learned that it removes the red cells that are abnormal or have inclusions.

  49. QUESTION:
    1. In antibody production, lets say the primary antibody is produced in the mouse,?
    and if i want to produced a secondary antibody towards the primary antibody, can I inject the primary antibody into another mouse so it will produce the secondary antibody?Or must I use other animals like rabbit to produce the secondary antibody?Explain why.

    2. Why must we use secondary antibody tagged with enzyme, why not primary antibody directly tagged with enzyme?I read in Wikipedia about it, but I dont quite understand.It says something like "by using secondary conjugate antibody, you dont have to create primary conjugate antibody for every antigen to be targeted". Why is it hard to tagged different types of primary antibody with an enzyme, so you have to tagged only one type of secondary antibody which will target
    all primary antibodies?
    Is is different primary antibodies have different structure at the tail region, so tagging different primary antibodies will be harder and expensive????But isnt it more expensive if u were to use an extra antibody (Secondary antibody)
    (For question 2)

    3. Another question: Why cant the antigen be fixed to the wall of the plate instead of fixing the antibody to the wall to 'capture' the antigens. By fixing the antigen directly to the wall, u only have to use one layer of antibody to detect the fixed antigen?
    4. Another question: How do produce a secondary antibody specifically targeting only the Fc region of the primary antibody?If you inject the primary antibody of a mouse into a rabbit, how sure are you it will produced the secondary antibody against the Fc region of the primary, why not other region of the primary antibody?Or in order to do so, do you only inject the Fc region of the primary antibody into the rabbit?

    5. Last question: Does the Fc region differs from one animal species to the other eg mouse and rabbit, human and elephant?

    • ANSWER:
      1) The secondary antibody must be produced in an organism other than the mouse. This is because organisms do not produce antibodies against self antigens.

      2) As far as i know, both methods are being used- you can either label the primary or the secondary antibody.read about direct and indirect ELISA.Some of the disadvantages of direct ELISA are given in this link:
      http://www.komabiotech.com/FAQ/immunology/ELISA.htm#directELISA

      3) The plate can be coated directly with antigen. It is done in the case of Competitive ELISA.

      4)Sure, the secondary antibodies produced are complementary to different areas of the primary. The antibody specifically directed against the Fc portion can be obtained by affinity chromatography using Fc of primary in the column.

  50. QUESTION:
    what are the common errors for not getting protein bands when i do film, after doing western blot and probing?
    i probe with antibody primer which is diluted 3000 times. secondary antibody (HRP) is also diluted 3000 times. i detect the bands using ECL, then i put the membrane in the cassette. i put the film in developer solution for 20 seconds and fixer solution for 15 seconds.

    • ANSWER:
      many factors are responsible for this negative result.
      1: antibody is not recognizing the protein ( so check for + control). Check whether your ab recognizes only native protein, not denatured as happens after SDS-PAGE.
      2: Ab dilution (primary ab)
      3: I would not consider ECL is bad but if you have + control then this can be rulled out.
      good luck